With the development of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and global navigation satellite system (GNSS), the accurate camera positions at exposure can be known and the GNSS-assisted bundle block adjustment (BBA) approach is possible for integrated sensor orientation (ISO). This study employed ISO approach for camera pose determination with the objective of investigating the impact of a good sensor pre-calibration on a poor acquisition geometry. Within the presented works, several flights were conducted on a dike by a small UAV embedded with a metric camera and a GNSS receiver. The multi-lever-arm estimation within the BBA procedure makes it possible to merge image blocks of different configurations such as nadir and oblique images without physical constraints on camera and GNSS antenna positions. The merged image block achieves a better accuracy and the sensor self-calibrated well. The issued sensor calibration is then applied to a less preferable acquisition configuration and the accuracy is significantly improved. For a corridor acquisition scene of about 600
, a centimetric accuracy is reached with one GCP. With the provided sensor pre-calibration, an accuracy of 3.9
is achieved without any GCP.
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