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Open AccessArticle

Creating and Exploring Semantic Annotation for Behaviour Analysis

1,*,† and 2,†
Institute of Computer Science, University of Rostock, 18059 Rostock, Germany
Institute of Communications Engineering, University of Rostock, 18119 Rostock, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The authors contributed equally to this work.
Sensors 2018, 18(9), 2778;
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 20 August 2018 / Published: 23 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Annotation of User Data for Sensor-Based Systems)
PDF [2153 KB, uploaded 26 August 2018]


Providing ground truth is essential for activity recognition and behaviour analysis as it is needed for providing training data in methods of supervised learning, for providing context information for knowledge-based methods, and for quantifying the recognition performance. Semantic annotation extends simple symbolic labelling by assigning semantic meaning to the label, enabling further reasoning. In this paper, we present a novel approach to semantic annotation by means of plan operators. We provide a step by step description of the workflow to manually creating the ground truth annotation. To validate our approach, we create semantic annotation of the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) grand challenge dataset, which is often cited, but, due to missing and incomplete annotation, almost never used. We show that it is possible to derive hidden properties, behavioural routines, and changes in initial and goal conditions in the annotated dataset. We evaluate the quality of the annotation by calculating the interrater reliability between two annotators who labelled the dataset. The results show very good overlapping (Cohen’s κ of 0.8) between the annotators. The produced annotation and the semantic models are publicly available, in order to enable further usage of the CMU grand challenge dataset. View Full-Text
Keywords: semantic annotation; model-based; activity recognition; behaviour analysis semantic annotation; model-based; activity recognition; behaviour analysis

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Yordanova, K.; Krüger, F. Creating and Exploring Semantic Annotation for Behaviour Analysis. Sensors 2018, 18, 2778.

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