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Sensors 2018, 18(9), 2747; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18092747

ECG-RNG: A Random Number Generator Based on ECG Signals and Suitable for Securing Wireless Sensor Networks

1
Department of Computer Science, University Carlos III of Madrid, 28911 Leganés, Spain
2
Department of Electronic Technology, University Carlos III of Madrid, 28911 Leganés, Spain
3
Higher Colleges of Technology, Abu Dhabi Women’s College, Abu Dhabi 41012, United Arab Emirates
Current address: University Carlos III of Madrid. Avda. de la Universidad, 30, 28911 Leganés, Spain.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dependable Monitoring in Wireless Sensor Networks)
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Abstract

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are a promising technology with applications in many areas such as environment monitoring, agriculture, the military field or health-care, to name but a few. Unfortunately, the wireless connectivity of the sensors opens doors to many security threats, and therefore, cryptographic solutions must be included on-board these devices and preferably in their design phase. In this vein, Random Number Generators (RNGs) play a critical role in security solutions such as authentication protocols or key-generation algorithms. In this article is proposed an avant-garde proposal based on the cardiac signal generator we carry with us (our heart), which can be recorded with medical or even low-cost sensors with wireless connectivity. In particular, for the extraction of random bits, a multi-level decomposition has been performed by wavelet analysis. The proposal has been tested with one of the largest and most publicly available datasets of electrocardiogram signals (202 subjects and 24 h of recording time). Regarding the assessment, the proposed True Random Number Generator (TRNG) has been tested with the most demanding batteries of statistical tests (ENT, DIEHARDERand NIST), and this has been completed with a bias, distinctiveness and performance analysis. From the analysis conducted, it can be concluded that the output stream of our proposed TRNG behaves as a random variable and is suitable for securing WSNs. View Full-Text
Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs); Electrocardiogram (ECG) sensor; Random Number Generators (RNGs); wavelet Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs); Electrocardiogram (ECG) sensor; Random Number Generators (RNGs); wavelet
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Camara, C.; Peris-Lopez, P.; Martín, H.; Aldalaien, M. ECG-RNG: A Random Number Generator Based on ECG Signals and Suitable for Securing Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2018, 18, 2747.

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