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Galfenol Thin Films and Nanowires

Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2643;
Received: 4 July 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 12 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Materials Based Biosensors)
Galfenol (Fe1−xGax, 10 < x < 40) may be the only smart material that can be made by electrochemical deposition which enables thick film and nanowire structures. This article reviews the deposition, characterization, and applications of Galfenol thin films and nanowires. Galfenol films have been made by sputter deposition as well as by electrochemical deposition, which can be difficult due to the insolubility of gallium. However, a stable process has been developed, using citrate complexing, a rotating disk electrode, Cu seed layers, and pulsed deposition. Galfenol thin films and nanowires have been characterized for crystal structures and magnetostriction both by our group and by collaborators. Films and nanowires have been shown to be largely polycrystalline, with magnetostrictions that are on the same order of magnitude as textured bulk Galfenol. Electrodeposited Galfenol films were made with epitaxial texture on GaAs. Galfenol nanowires have been made by electrodeposition into anodic aluminum oxide templates using similar parameters defined for films. Segmented nanowires of Galfenol/Cu have been made to provide engineered magnetic properties. Applications of Galfenol and other magnetic nanowires include microfluidic sensors, magnetic separation, cellular radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast, and hyperthermia. View Full-Text
Keywords: Galfenol; magnetic nanowires; electrochemical deposition Galfenol; magnetic nanowires; electrochemical deposition
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Stadler, B.J.H.; Reddy, M.; Basantkumar, R.; McGary, P.; Estrine, E.; Huang, X.; Sung, S.Y.; Tan, L.; Zou, J.; Maqableh, M.; Shore, D.; Gage, T.; Um, J.; Hein, M.; Sharma, A. Galfenol Thin Films and Nanowires. Sensors 2018, 18, 2643.

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