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Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Soil Pollution Using E-Nose

Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Doświadczalna 4, 20-290 Lublin, Poland
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 40, 20-618 Lublin, Poland
Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 40B, 20-618 Lublin, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2463;
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 30 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Noses and Their Application)
The possibility of detecting low levels of soil pollution by petroleum fuel using an electronic nose (e-nose) was studied. An attempt to distinguish between pollution caused by petrol and diesel oil, and its relation to the time elapsed since the pollution event was simultaneously performed. Ten arable soils, belonging to various soil groups from the World Reference Base (WRB), were investigated. The measurements were performed on soils that were moistened to field capacity, polluted separately with both hydrocarbons, and then allowed to dry slowly over a period of 180 days. The volatile fingerprints differed throughout the course of the experiment, and, by its end, they were similar to those of the unpolluted soils. Principal component analysis (PCA) and artificial neural network (ANN) analysis showed that the e-nose results could be used to detect soil contamination and distinguish between pollutants and contamination levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: e-nose; hydrocarbon; pollution; soil e-nose; hydrocarbon; pollution; soil
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bieganowski, A.; Józefaciuk, G.; Bandura, L.; Guz, Ł.; Łagód, G.; Franus, W. Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Soil Pollution Using E-Nose. Sensors 2018, 18, 2463.

AMA Style

Bieganowski A, Józefaciuk G, Bandura L, Guz Ł, Łagód G, Franus W. Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Soil Pollution Using E-Nose. Sensors. 2018; 18(8):2463.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bieganowski, Andrzej, Grzegorz Józefaciuk, Lidia Bandura, Łukasz Guz, Grzegorz Łagód, and Wojciech Franus. 2018. "Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Soil Pollution Using E-Nose" Sensors 18, no. 8: 2463.

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