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Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2463; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082463

Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Soil Pollution Using E-Nose

1
Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Doświadczalna 4, 20-290 Lublin, Poland
2
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 40, 20-618 Lublin, Poland
3
Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 40B, 20-618 Lublin, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 30 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Noses and Their Application)
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Abstract

The possibility of detecting low levels of soil pollution by petroleum fuel using an electronic nose (e-nose) was studied. An attempt to distinguish between pollution caused by petrol and diesel oil, and its relation to the time elapsed since the pollution event was simultaneously performed. Ten arable soils, belonging to various soil groups from the World Reference Base (WRB), were investigated. The measurements were performed on soils that were moistened to field capacity, polluted separately with both hydrocarbons, and then allowed to dry slowly over a period of 180 days. The volatile fingerprints differed throughout the course of the experiment, and, by its end, they were similar to those of the unpolluted soils. Principal component analysis (PCA) and artificial neural network (ANN) analysis showed that the e-nose results could be used to detect soil contamination and distinguish between pollutants and contamination levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: e-nose; hydrocarbon; pollution; soil e-nose; hydrocarbon; pollution; soil
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Bieganowski, A.; Józefaciuk, G.; Bandura, L.; Guz, Ł.; Łagód, G.; Franus, W. Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Soil Pollution Using E-Nose. Sensors 2018, 18, 2463.

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