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Accuracy of a Basketball Indoor Tracking System Based on Standard Bluetooth Low Energy Channels (NBN23®)

Faculty of Sports Biomedicine, Lithuanian Sports University, 44221 Kaunas, Lithuania
Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences and Human Development, CIDESD, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Sport Sciences Department, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Departamento de Desporto e Saúde, Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade de Évora, 7000 Évora, Portugal
Department of Physical Activity and Sport Science, University of Basque Country, 1007 Vitoria, Alava, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(6), 1940;
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 30 May 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
The present study aims to identify the accuracy of the NBN23® system, an indoor tracking system based on radio-frequency and standard Bluetooth Low Energy channels. Twelve capture tags were attached to a custom cart with fixed distances of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 1.8 m. The cart was pushed along a predetermined course following the lines of a standard dimensions Basketball court. The course was performed at low speed (<10.0 km/h), medium speed (>10.0 km/h and <20.0 km/h) and high speed (>20.0 km/h). Root mean square error (RMSE) and percentage of variance accounted for (%VAF) were used as accuracy measures. The obtained data showed acceptable accuracy results for both RMSE and %VAF, despite the expected degree of error in position measurement at higher speeds. The RMSE for all the distances and velocities presented an average absolute error of 0.30 ± 0.13 cm with 90.61 ± 8.34 of %VAF, in line with most available systems, and considered acceptable for indoor sports. The processing of data with filter correction seemed to reduce the noise and promote a lower relative error, increasing the %VAF for each measured distance. Research using positional-derived variables in Basketball is still very scarce; thus, this independent test of the NBN23® tracking system provides accuracy details and opens up opportunities to develop new performance indicators that help to optimize training adaptations and performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: position measurement; player tracking; reliability; team sports position measurement; player tracking; reliability; team sports
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Figueira, B.; Gonçalves, B.; Folgado, H.; Masiulis, N.; Calleja-González, J.; Sampaio, J. Accuracy of a Basketball Indoor Tracking System Based on Standard Bluetooth Low Energy Channels (NBN23®). Sensors 2018, 18, 1940.

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