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Sensors 2018, 18(6), 1888;

An Enhanced LoRaWAN Security Protocol for Privacy Preservation in IoT with a Case Study on a Smart Factory-Enabled Parking System

Department of Information Security Engineering, Soonchunhyang University, Asan 31538, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 May 2018 / Revised: 30 May 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 8 June 2018
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The Internet of Things (IoT) utilizes algorithms to facilitate intelligent applications across cities in the form of smart-urban projects. As the majority of devices in IoT are battery operated, their applications should be facilitated with a low-power communication setup. Such facility is possible through the Low-Power Wide-Area Network (LPWAN), but at a constrained bit rate. For long-range communication over LPWAN, several approaches and protocols are adopted. One such protocol is the Long-Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN), which is a media access layer protocol for long-range communication between the devices and the application servers via LPWAN gateways. However, LoRaWAN comes with fewer security features as a much-secured protocol consumes more battery because of the exorbitant computational overheads. The standard protocol fails to support end-to-end security and perfect forward secrecy while being vulnerable to the replay attack that makes LoRaWAN limited in supporting applications where security (especially end-to-end security) is important. Motivated by this, an enhanced LoRaWAN security protocol is proposed, which not only provides the basic functions of connectivity between the application server and the end device, but additionally averts these listed security issues. The proposed protocol is developed with two options, the Default Option (DO) and the Security-Enhanced Option (SEO). The protocol is validated through Burrows–Abadi–Needham (BAN) logic and the Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA) tool. The proposed protocol is also analyzed for overheads through system-based and low-power device-based evaluations. Further, a case study on a smart factory-enabled parking system is considered for its practical application. The results, in terms of network latency with reliability fitting and signaling overheads, show paramount improvements and better performance for the proposed protocol compared with the two handshake options, Pre-Shared Key (PSK) and Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC), of Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS). View Full-Text
Keywords: LoRaWAN; privacy; IoT; smart parking; security; protocol LoRaWAN; privacy; IoT; smart parking; security; protocol

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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You, I.; Kwon, S.; Choudhary, G.; Sharma, V.; Seo, J.T. An Enhanced LoRaWAN Security Protocol for Privacy Preservation in IoT with a Case Study on a Smart Factory-Enabled Parking System. Sensors 2018, 18, 1888.

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