The Chinese space station is designed to carry out manned spaceflight, space science research, and so on. In serious applications, it is a common operation to inject gas into the hull, which can produce strain of the bulkhead. Accurate measurement of strain for the bulkhead is one of the key tasks in evaluating the health condition of the space station. This is the first work to perform strain detection for the Chinese space station bulkhead by using optical fiber Bragg grating. In the period of measurements, the resistance strain gauge is used as the strain standard. The measurement error of the fiber optical sensor in the circumferential direction is very small, being less than 4.52 με. However, the error in the axial direction is very large with the highest value of 28.93 με. Because the measurement error of bare fiber in the axial direction is very small, the transverse effect of the substrate of the fiber optical sensor likely plays a role. The comparison of the theoretical and experimental results of the transverse effect coefficients shows that they are fairly consistent, with values of 0.0271 and 0.0287, respectively. After the transverse effect is compensated, the strain deviation in the axial detection is smaller than 2.04 με. It is of great significance to carry out real-time health assessment for the bulkhead of the space station.
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