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An Adaption Broadcast Radius-Based Code Dissemination Scheme for Low Energy Wireless Sensor Networks

School of Information Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China
The State Key Laboratory of Industrial Control Technology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Northeastern State University, Tahlequah, OK 74464, USA
Department of Network Engineering, School of Computer, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073, China
School of Computer Science, National Huaqiao University, Quanzhou 362000, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1509;
Received: 24 March 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 7 May 2018 / Published: 10 May 2018


Due to the Software Defined Network (SDN) technology, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are getting wider application prospects for sensor nodes that can get new functions after updating program codes. The issue of disseminating program codes to every node in the network with minimum delay and energy consumption have been formulated and investigated in the literature. The minimum-transmission broadcast (MTB) problem, which aims to reduce broadcast redundancy, has been well studied in WSNs where the broadcast radius is assumed to be fixed in the whole network. In this paper, an Adaption Broadcast Radius-based Code Dissemination (ABRCD) scheme is proposed to reduce delay and improve energy efficiency in duty cycle-based WSNs. In the ABCRD scheme, a larger broadcast radius is set in areas with more energy left, generating more optimized performance than previous schemes. Thus: (1) with a larger broadcast radius, program codes can reach the edge of network from the source in fewer hops, decreasing the number of broadcasts and at the same time, delay. (2) As the ABRCD scheme adopts a larger broadcast radius for some nodes, program codes can be transmitted to more nodes in one broadcast transmission, diminishing the number of broadcasts. (3) The larger radius in the ABRCD scheme causes more energy consumption of some transmitting nodes, but radius enlarging is only conducted in areas with an energy surplus, and energy consumption in the hot-spots can be reduced instead due to some nodes transmitting data directly to sink without forwarding by nodes in the original hot-spot, thus energy consumption can almost reach a balance and network lifetime can be prolonged. The proposed ABRCD scheme first assigns a broadcast radius, which doesn’t affect the network lifetime, to nodes having different distance to the code source, then provides an algorithm to construct a broadcast backbone. In the end, a comprehensive performance analysis and simulation result shows that the proposed ABRCD scheme shows better performance in different broadcast situations. Compared to previous schemes, the transmission delay is reduced by 41.11~78.42%, the number of broadcasts is reduced by 36.18~94.27% and the energy utilization ratio is improved up to 583.42%, while the network lifetime can be prolonged up to 274.99%. View Full-Text
Keywords: wireless sensor networks; energy efficiency; codes dissemination; minimum-transmission broadcast; delay wireless sensor networks; energy efficiency; codes dissemination; minimum-transmission broadcast; delay

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Yu, S.; Liu, X.; Liu, A.; Xiong, N.; Cai, Z.; Wang, T. An Adaption Broadcast Radius-Based Code Dissemination Scheme for Low Energy Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2018, 18, 1509.

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