Between 1960 and 1990, 95% of the black rhino population in the world was killed. In South Africa, a rhino was killed every 8 h for its horn throughout 2016. Wild animals, rhinos and elephants, in particular, are facing an ever increasing poaching crisis. In this paper, we review poaching detection technologies that aim to save endangered species from extinction. We present requirements for effective poacher detection and identify research challenges through the survey. We describe poaching detection technologies in four domains: perimeter based, ground based, aerial based, and animal tagging based technologies. Moreover, we discuss the different types of sensor technologies that are used in intruder detection systems such as: radar, magnetic, acoustic, optic, infrared and thermal, radio frequency, motion, seismic, chemical, and animal sentinels. The ultimate long-term solution for the poaching crisis is to remove the drivers of demand by educating people in demanding countries and raising awareness of the poaching crisis. Until prevention of poaching takes effect, there will be a continuous urgent need for new (combined) approaches that take up the research challenges and provide better protection against poaching in wildlife areas.
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