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Remarkably Enhanced Room-Temperature Hydrogen Sensing of SnO2 Nanoflowers via Vacuum Annealing Treatment

1
Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials—Hubei Key Laboratory of Ferro & Piezoelectric Materials and Devices, Faculty of Physics & Electronic Sciences, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062, China
2
School of Electronic Information, Huanggang Normal University, Huanggang 438000, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 949; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18040949
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 7 March 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Abstract

In this work, SnO2 nanoflowers synthesized by a hydrothermal method were employed as hydrogen sensing materials. The as-synthesized SnO2 nanoflowers consisted of cuboid-like SnO2 nanorods with tetragonal structures. A great increase in the relative content of surface-adsorbed oxygen was observed after the vacuum annealing treatment, and this increase could have been due to the increase in surface oxygen vacancies serving as preferential adsorption sites for oxygen species. Annealing treatment resulted in an 8% increase in the specific surface area of the samples. Moreover, the conductivity of the sensors decreased after the annealing treatment, which should be attributed to the increase in electron scattering around the defects and the compensated donor behavior of the oxygen vacancies due to the surface oxygen adsorption. The hydrogen sensors of the annealed samples, compared to those of the unannealed samples, exhibited a much higher sensitivity and faster response rate. The sensor response factor and response rate increased from 27.1% to 80.2% and 0.34%/s to 1.15%/s, respectively. This remarkable enhancement in sensing performance induced by the annealing treatment could be attributed to the larger specific surface areas and higher amount of surface-adsorbed oxygen, which provides a greater reaction space for hydrogen. Moreover, the sensors with annealed SnO2 nanoflowers also exhibited high selectivity towards hydrogen against CH4, CO, and ethanol. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrogen sensing; SnO2; annealing; nanoflowers; hydrothermal hydrogen sensing; SnO2; annealing; nanoflowers; hydrothermal
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Liu, G.; Wang, Z.; Chen, Z.; Yang, S.; Fu, X.; Huang, R.; Li, X.; Xiong, J.; Hu, Y.; Gu, H. Remarkably Enhanced Room-Temperature Hydrogen Sensing of SnO2 Nanoflowers via Vacuum Annealing Treatment. Sensors 2018, 18, 949.

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