Next Article in Journal
Development and Hybrid Position/Force Control of a Dual-Drive Macro-Fiber-Composite Microgripper
Next Article in Special Issue
European In-Situ Snow Measurements: Practices and Purposes
Previous Article in Journal
Water Detection in Urban Areas from GF-3
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Novel Strategy for Very-Large-Scale Cash-Crop Mapping in the Context of Weather-Related Risk Assessment, Combining Global Satellite Multispectral Datasets, Environmental Constraints, and In Situ Acquisition of Geospatial Data
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1300; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041300

Wind Gust Measurement Techniques—From Traditional Anemometry to New Possibilities

Meteorological Research, Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Erik Palménin aukio 1, 00560 Helsinki, Finland
Received: 21 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
  |  
PDF [1683 KB, uploaded 21 January 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Information on wind gusts is needed for assessment of wind-induced damage and risks to safety. The measurement of wind gust speed requires a high temporal resolution of the anemometer system, because the gust is defined as a short-duration (seconds) maximum of the fluctuating wind speed. Until the digitalization of wind measurements in the 1990s, the wind gust measurements suffered from limited recording and data processing resources. Therefore, the majority of continuous wind gust records date back at most only by 30 years. Although the response characteristics of anemometer systems are good enough today, the traditional measurement techniques at weather stations based on cup and sonic anemometers are limited to heights and regions where the supporting structures can reach. Therefore, existing measurements are mainly concentrated over densely-populated land areas, whereas from remote locations, such as the marine Arctic, wind gust information is available only from sparse coastal locations. Recent developments of wind gust measurement techniques based on turbulence measurements from research aircraft and from Doppler lidar can potentially provide new information from heights and locations unreachable by traditional measurement techniques. Moreover, fast-developing measurement methods based on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) may add to better coverage of wind gust measurements in the future. In this paper, we provide an overview of the history and the current status of anemometry from the perspective of wind gusts. Furthermore, a discussion on the potential future directions of wind gust measurement techniques is provided. View Full-Text
Keywords: wind gust; anemometer; Doppler lidar; research aircraft wind gust; anemometer; Doppler lidar; research aircraft
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Suomi, I.; Vihma, T. Wind Gust Measurement Techniques—From Traditional Anemometry to New Possibilities. Sensors 2018, 18, 1300.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top