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Individual Biometric Identification Using Multi-Cycle Electrocardiographic Waveform Patterns

School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1005;
Received: 15 February 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
PDF [1284 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]


The electrocardiogram (ECG) waveform conveys information regarding the electrical property of the heart. The patterns vary depending on the individual heart characteristics. ECG features can be potentially used for biometric recognition. This study presents a new method using the entire ECG waveform pattern for matching and demonstrates that the approach can potentially be employed for individual biometric identification. Multi-cycle ECG signals were assessed using an ECG measuring circuit, and three electrodes can be patched on the wrists or fingers for considering various measurements. For biometric identification, our-fold cross validation was used in the experiments for assessing how the results of a statistical analysis will generalize to an independent data set. Four different pattern matching algorithms, i.e., cosine similarity, cross correlation, city block distance, and Euclidean distances, were tested to compare the individual identification performances with a single channel of ECG signal (3-wire ECG). To evaluate the pattern matching for biometric identification, the ECG recordings for each subject were partitioned into training and test set. The suggested method obtained a maximum performance of 89.9% accuracy with two heartbeats of ECG signals measured on the wrist and 93.3% accuracy with three heartbeats for 55 subjects. The performance rate with ECG signals measured on the fingers improved up to 99.3% with two heartbeats and 100% with three heartbeats of signals for 20 subjects. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrocardiography; individual biometric identification; multi-cycle ECG waveform; pattern matching electrocardiography; individual biometric identification; multi-cycle ECG waveform; pattern matching

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Lee, W.; Kim, S.; Kim, D. Individual Biometric Identification Using Multi-Cycle Electrocardiographic Waveform Patterns. Sensors 2018, 18, 1005.

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