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Sensors 2018, 18(3), 727;

Sulfide Species Optical Monitoring by a Miniaturized Silicon Photomultiplier

STMicroelectronics, Stradale Primosole 50, 95121 Catania, Italy
Diploma of Physics and Astronomy, University of Catania, 95100 Catania, Italy
CNR-IMM Sede, Strada VIII Z.I. 5, 95121 Catania, Italy
Azienda Policlinico Universitario, Via S. Sofia 78, 95100 Catania, Italy
Centro Speleologico Etneo, Via Valdisavoia 5, 95123 Catania, Italy
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 January 2018 / Revised: 15 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 28 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1003 KB, uploaded 2 March 2018]   |  


The monitoring of water-soluble pollutants is receiving a growing interest from the scientific community. In this context, sulfide anion species S2− and HS are particularly relevant since they can cause acute and chronic toxicity including neurological effects and at high concentrations, even death. In this study, a new strategy for fast and sensitive optical detection of sulfide species in water samples is described. The method uses an integrated silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) device coupled with the appropriate analytical strategy applied in a plastic microchip with dried reagents on board. More specifically, all sulfide species (H2S, HS− and S2−) in water samples are detected by the fluorescence signal emitted upon the reaction with N,N-dimethyl-phenylenediamine sulfate in the presence of Fe3+, leading to the formation of the fluorescent methylene blue (MB) species. It has been proven that the system herein proposed is able to measure sulfide concentration in a linear range from 0–10 mg L−1 with a sensitivity value of about 6.7 µA mg−1 L and a detection limit of 0.5 mg L−1. A comparison with conventional UV-Vis detection method has been also carried out. Data show a very good linear correlation (R2 = 0.98093), proving the effectiveness of the method. Results pave the way toward the development of portable and low-cost device systems for water-soluble sulfide pollutants. View Full-Text
Keywords: sulfide; silicon photomultiplier; water sulfide; silicon photomultiplier; water

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Petralia, S.; Sciuto, E.L.; Santangelo, M.F.; Libertino, S.; Messina, M.A.; Conoci, S. Sulfide Species Optical Monitoring by a Miniaturized Silicon Photomultiplier. Sensors 2018, 18, 727.

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