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Open AccessArticle

VLSI Design of Trusted Virtual Sensors

Instituto de Microelectrónica de Sevilla IMSE-CNM, CSIC, Universidad de Sevilla, Américo Vespucio, 41092 Sevilla, Spain
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Sensors 2018, 18(2), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020347
Received: 30 December 2017 / Revised: 20 January 2018 / Accepted: 22 January 2018 / Published: 25 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain 2017)
This work presents a Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) design of trusted virtual sensors providing a minimum unitary cost and very good figures of size, speed and power consumption. The sensed variable is estimated by a virtual sensor based on a configurable and programmable PieceWise-Affine hyper-Rectangular (PWAR) model. An algorithm is presented to find the best values of the programmable parameters given a set of (empirical or simulated) input-output data. The VLSI design of the trusted virtual sensor uses the fast authenticated encryption algorithm, AEGIS, to ensure the integrity of the provided virtual measurement and to encrypt it, and a Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) based on a Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) to ensure the integrity of the sensor itself. Implementation results of a prototype designed in a 90-nm Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology show that the active silicon area of the trusted virtual sensor is 0.86 mm 2 and its power consumption when trusted sensing at 50 MHz is 7.12 mW. The maximum operation frequency is 85 MHz, which allows response times lower than 0.25 μ s. As application example, the designed prototype was programmed to estimate the yaw rate in a vehicle, obtaining root mean square errors lower than 1.1%. Experimental results of the employed PUF show the robustness of the trusted sensing against aging and variations of the operation conditions, namely, temperature and power supply voltage (final value as well as ramp-up time). View Full-Text
Keywords: virtual sensors, CMOS integrated circuits; data security; hardware security; Physical Unclonable Function (PUF); piecewise linear approximation virtual sensors, CMOS integrated circuits; data security; hardware security; Physical Unclonable Function (PUF); piecewise linear approximation
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Martínez-Rodríguez, M.C.; Prada-Delgado, M.A.; Brox, P.; Baturone, I. VLSI Design of Trusted Virtual Sensors. Sensors 2018, 18, 347.

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