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Sensors 2018, 18(11), 4070;

An Integrated Machine Learning Algorithm for Separating the Long-Term Deflection Data of Prestressed Concrete Bridges

School of Civil Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Durability for Marine Civil Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 October 2018 / Revised: 15 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridge Structural Health Monitoring and Damage Identification)
PDF [5196 KB, uploaded 22 November 2018]


Deflection is one of the key indexes for the safety evaluation of bridge structures. In reality, due to the changing operational and environmental conditions, the deflection signals measured by structural health monitoring systems are greatly affected. These ambient changes in the system often cover subtle changes in the vibration signals caused by damage to the system. The deflection signals of prestressed concrete (PC) bridges are regarded as the superposition of different effects, including concrete shrinkage, creep, prestress loss, material deterioration, temperature effects, and live load effects. According to multiscale analysis theory of the long-term deflection signal, in this paper, an integrated machine learning algorithm that combines a Butterworth filter, ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), principle component analysis (PCA), and fast independent component analysis (FastICA) is proposed for separating the individual deflection components from a measured single channel deflection signal. The proposed algorithm consists of four stages: (1) the live load effect, which is a high-frequency signal, is separated from the raw signal by a Butterworth filter; (2) the EEMD algorithm is used to extract the intrinsic mode function (IMF) components; (3) these IMFs are utilized as input in the PCA model and some uncorrelated and dominant basis components are extracted; and (4) FastICA is applied to derive the independent deflection component. The simulated results show that each individual deflection component can be successfully separated when the noise level is under 10%. Verified by a practical application, the algorithm is feasible for extracting the structural deflection (including concrete shrinkage, creep, and prestress loss) only caused by structural damage or material deterioration. View Full-Text
Keywords: machine learning; deflection signal separation; Butterworth filter; EEMD; PCA; FastICA machine learning; deflection signal separation; Butterworth filter; EEMD; PCA; FastICA

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Ye, X.; Chen, X.; Lei, Y.; Fan, J.; Mei, L. An Integrated Machine Learning Algorithm for Separating the Long-Term Deflection Data of Prestressed Concrete Bridges. Sensors 2018, 18, 4070.

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