Next Article in Journal
Identifying Stops and Moves in WiFi Tracking Data
Previous Article in Journal
VINS-MKF: A Tightly-Coupled Multi-Keyframe Visual-Inertial Odometry for Accurate and Robust State Estimation
Open AccessArticle

Pencil Lead as a Material for Microfluidic 3D-Electrode Assemblies

Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(11), 4037; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18114037
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 13 November 2018 / Accepted: 15 November 2018 / Published: 19 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
We present an electrochemical, microfluidic system with a working electrode based on an ordered 3D array of pencil leads. The electrode array was integrated into a plexiglass/PDMS channel. We tested the setup using a simple redox probe and compared the results with computer simulations. As a proof of concept application of the device we showed that the setup can be used for determination of dopamine concentration in physiological pH and ultrasensitive, although only qualitative, detection of p-nitrophenol with a limit of detection below 1 nmol L−1. The observed limit of detection for p-nitrophenol is not only much lower than achieved with similar methods but also sufficient for evaluation of exposure to pesticides such as methyl parathion through urinalysis. This low cost setup can be fabricated without the need for clean room facilities and in the future, due to the ordered structure of the electrode could be used to better understand the process of electroanalysis and electrode functionalization. To the best of our knowledge it is the first application of pencil leads as 3D electrochemical sensor in a microfluidic channel. View Full-Text
Keywords: pencil graphite electrode (PGE); microfluidics; 3D electrode pencil graphite electrode (PGE); microfluidics; 3D electrode
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Witkowska Nery, E.; Kundys-Siedlecka, M.; Furuya, Y.; Jönsson-Niedziółka, M. Pencil Lead as a Material for Microfluidic 3D-Electrode Assemblies. Sensors 2018, 18, 4037.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop