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Sensors 2018, 18(11), 3840; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18113840

An Inductive Sensing System to Measure In-Socket Residual Limb Displacements for People Using Lower-Limb Prostheses

Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, 3720 15th Ave NE, Box 355061, Seattle, WA 98195-5061, USA
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Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 31 October 2018 / Accepted: 2 November 2018 / Published: 9 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors)
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Abstract

The objective of this research was to assess the performance of an embedded sensing system designed to measure the distance between a prosthetic socket wall and residual limb. Low-profile inductive sensors were laminated into prosthetic sockets and flexible ferromagnetic targets were created from elastomeric liners with embedded iron particles for four participants with transtibial amputation. Using insights from sensor performance testing, a novel calibration procedure was developed to quickly and accurately calibrate the multiple embedded sensors. The sensing system was evaluated through laboratory tests in which participants wore sock combinations with three distinct thicknesses and conducted a series of activities including standing, walking, and sitting. When a thicker sock was worn, the limb typically moved further away from the socket and peak-to-peak displacements decreased. However, sensors did not measure equivalent distances or displacements for a given sock combination, which provided information regarding the fit of the socket and how a sock change intervention influenced socket fit. Monitoring of limb–socket displacements may serve as a valuable tool for researchers and clinicians to quantitatively assess socket fit. View Full-Text
Keywords: amputee; prosthetic socket; socket fit; sensor design; residual limb displacements; pistoning; prosthetic socks amputee; prosthetic socket; socket fit; sensor design; residual limb displacements; pistoning; prosthetic socks
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Henrikson, K.M.; Weathersby, E.J.; Larsen, B.G.; Cagle, J.C.; McLean, J.B.; Sanders, J.E. An Inductive Sensing System to Measure In-Socket Residual Limb Displacements for People Using Lower-Limb Prostheses. Sensors 2018, 18, 3840.

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