Next Article in Journal
Precipitable Water Vapour Retrieval from GPS Precise Point Positioning and NCEP CFSv2 Dataset during Typhoon Events
Next Article in Special Issue
Smartphone-Based Indoor Localization within a 13th Century Historic Building
Previous Article in Journal
Multifeature Extraction and Seafloor Classification Combining LiDAR and MBES Data around Yuanzhi Island in the South China Sea
Previous Article in Special Issue
Fast Signals of Opportunity Fingerprint Database Maintenance with Autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicle for Indoor Positioning
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2018, 18(11), 3830;

Augmentation of GNSS by Low-Cost MEMS IMU, OBD-II, and Digital Altimeter for Improved Positioning in Urban Area

School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Korea Aerospace University, Goyang-si 10540, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The first author is now with Advanced Development Team V, Mando Corporation.
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 November 2018 / Published: 8 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Fusion and Novel Technologies in Positioning and Navigation)
PDF [7234 KB, uploaded 8 November 2018]


This paper proposes an efficient multi-sensor system to complement GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) for improved positioning in urban area. The proposed system augments GNSS by low-cost MEMS IMU (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Inertial Measurement Unit), OBD (On-Board Diagnostics)-II, and digital altimeter modules. For improved availability of time synchronization in urban area, an adaptive synchronization method is proposed to combine the external PPS (Pulse Per Second) signal and the internal onboard clock. For improved positioning accuracy and availability, a 17-state Kalman filter is formulated for efficient multi-sensor fusion, including OBD-II and digital altimeter modules. A strategy to apply different types of measurement updates is also proposed for improved performance in urban area. Four experiment results with field-collected measurements evaluates the performance of the proposed GNSS/IMU/OBD-II/altimeter system in various aspects, including accuracy, precision, continuity, and availability. View Full-Text
Keywords: multi-sensor fusion; positioning; time synchronization; urban area multi-sensor fusion; positioning; time synchronization; urban area

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lim, J.; Yoo, W.J.; Kim, L.W.; Lee, Y.D.; Lee, H.K. Augmentation of GNSS by Low-Cost MEMS IMU, OBD-II, and Digital Altimeter for Improved Positioning in Urban Area. Sensors 2018, 18, 3830.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top