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Automatic Detection of Missing Access Points in Indoor Positioning System

*,‡ and *,‡
Faculty of Mathematics and Information Science, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75 street, 00-662 Warsaw, Poland
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This paper is an extension version of two conference papers: Górak, R.; Luckner, M. Malfunction Immune Wi-Fi Localisation Method. In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference: Computational Collective Intelligence, Madrid, Spain, 21–23 September 2015; pp. 328–337 and Górak, R.; Luckner, M. Modified Random Forest algorithm for Wi-Fi Indoor Localization System. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference: Computational Collective Intelligence, Halkidiki, Greece, 28–30 September 2016; pp. 147–157.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Sensors 2018, 18(11), 3595;
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 30 September 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
PDF [4598 KB, uploaded 23 October 2018]


The paper presents a Wi-Fi-based indoor localisation system. It consists of two main parts, the localisation model and an Access Points (APs) detection module. The system uses a received signal strength (RSS) gathered by multiple mobile terminals to detect which AP should be included in the localisation model and whether the model needs to be updated (rebuilt). The rebuilding of the localisation model prevents the localisation system from a significant loss of accuracy. The proposed automatic detection of missing APs has a universal character and it can be applied to any Wi-Fi localisation model which was created using the fingerprinting method. The paper considers the localisation model based on the Random Forest algorithm. The system was tested on data collected inside a multi-floor academic building. The proposed implementation reduced the mean horizontal error by 5.5 m and the classification error for the floor’s prediction by 0.26 in case of a serious malfunction of a Wi-Fi infrastructure. Several simulations were performed, taking into account different occupancy scenarios as well as different numbers of missing APs. The simulations proved that the system correctly detects missing and present APs in the Wi-Fi infrastructure. View Full-Text
Keywords: indoor localisation system; fingerprinting; system deployment and maintenance indoor localisation system; fingerprinting; system deployment and maintenance

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Górak, R.; Luckner, M. Automatic Detection of Missing Access Points in Indoor Positioning System . Sensors 2018, 18, 3595.

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