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Review of Low-Cost Photoacoustic Sensing and Imaging Based on Laser Diode and Light-Emitting Diode
Article

Photoacoustic Signal Enhancement: Towards Utilization of Low Energy Laser Diodes in Real-Time Photoacoustic Imaging

1
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University, 818 W. Hancock, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11365-11155, Iran
3
Department of Nano Engineering, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093, USA
4
Department of Dermatology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
5
Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3498; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103498
Received: 24 August 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 13 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photoacoustic Sensing and Imaging in Biomedicine)
In practice, photoacoustic (PA) waves generated with cost-effective and low-energy laser diodes, are weak and almost buried in noise. Reconstruction of an artifact-free PA image from noisy measurements requires an effective denoising technique. Averaging is widely used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of PA signals; however, it is time consuming and in the case of very low SNR signals, hundreds to thousands of data acquisition epochs are needed. In this study, we explored the feasibility of using an adaptive and time-efficient filtering method to improve the SNR of PA signals. Our results show that the proposed method increases the SNR of PA signals more efficiently and with much fewer acquisitions, compared to common averaging techniques. Consequently, PA imaging is conducted considerably faster. View Full-Text
Keywords: photoacoustic imaging; signal enhancement; low-energy laser diodes photoacoustic imaging; signal enhancement; low-energy laser diodes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Manwar, R.; Hosseinzadeh, M.; Hariri, A.; Kratkiewicz, K.; Noei, S.; N. Avanaki, M.R. Photoacoustic Signal Enhancement: Towards Utilization of Low Energy Laser Diodes in Real-Time Photoacoustic Imaging. Sensors 2018, 18, 3498. https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103498

AMA Style

Manwar R, Hosseinzadeh M, Hariri A, Kratkiewicz K, Noei S, N. Avanaki MR. Photoacoustic Signal Enhancement: Towards Utilization of Low Energy Laser Diodes in Real-Time Photoacoustic Imaging. Sensors. 2018; 18(10):3498. https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103498

Chicago/Turabian Style

Manwar, Rayyan; Hosseinzadeh, Matin; Hariri, Ali; Kratkiewicz, Karl; Noei, Shahryar; N. Avanaki, Mohammad R. 2018. "Photoacoustic Signal Enhancement: Towards Utilization of Low Energy Laser Diodes in Real-Time Photoacoustic Imaging" Sensors 18, no. 10: 3498. https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103498

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