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Open AccessArticle

Using the Pulse Contour Method to Measure the Changes in Stroke Volume during a Passive Leg Raising Test

1
Institute of Medicine, School of Medicine, Chung-Shan Medical University; Department of Internal Medicine, Chung-Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan
2
Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, Chaoyang University of Technology, Taichung 413, Taiwan
3
Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan
4
Department of Internal Medicine, Chung-Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3420; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103420
Received: 5 September 2018 / Revised: 4 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Sensors and Devices for Healthcare Applications)
The pulse contour method is often used with the Windkessel model to measure stroke volume. We used a digital pressure and flow sensors to detect the parameters of the Windkessel model from the pulse waveform. The objective of this study was to assess the stability and accuracy of this method by making use of the passive leg raising test. We studied 24 healthy subjects (40 ± 9.3 years), and used the Medis® CS 1000, an impedance cardiography, as the comparing reference. The pulse contour method measured the waveform of the brachial artery by using a cuff. The compliance and resistance of the peripheral artery was detected from the cuff characteristics and the blood pressure waveform. Then, according to the method proposed by Romano et al., the stroke volume could be measured. This method was implemented in our designed blood pressure monitor. A passive leg raising test, which could immediately change the preloading of the heart, was done to certify the performance of our method. The pulse contour method and impedance cardiography simultaneously measured the stroke volume. The measurement of the changes in stroke volume using the pulse contour method had a very high correlation with the Medis® CS 1000 measurement, the correlation coefficient of the changed ratio and changed differences in stroke volume were r2 = 0.712 and r2 = 0.709, respectively. It was shown that the stroke volume measured by using the pulse contour method was not accurate enough. But, the changes in the stroke volume could be accurately measured with this pulse contour method. Changes in stroke volume are often used to understand the conditions of cardiac preloading in the clinical field. Moreover, the operation of the pulse contour method is easier than using impedance cardiography and echocardiography. Thus, this method is suitable to use in different healthcare fields. View Full-Text
Keywords: pulse contour method; stroke volume; flow sensor; blood pressure monitor pulse contour method; stroke volume; flow sensor; blood pressure monitor
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MDPI and ACS Style

Su, C.-H.; Liu, S.-H.; Tan, T.-H.; Lo, C.-H. Using the Pulse Contour Method to Measure the Changes in Stroke Volume during a Passive Leg Raising Test. Sensors 2018, 18, 3420.

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