Next Article in Journal
Study on Fabrication of ZnO Waveguide Layer for Love Wave Humidity Sensor Based on Magnetron Sputtering
Next Article in Special Issue
Person Re-Identification with RGB-D Camera in Top-View Configuration through Multiple Nearest Neighbor Classifiers and Neighborhood Component Features Selection
Previous Article in Journal
A High-Performance Optoelectronic Sensor Device for Nitrate Nitrogen in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems
Previous Article in Special Issue
Direct Depth SLAM: Sparse Geometric Feature Enhanced Direct Depth SLAM System for Low-Texture Environments
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3383;

Large Depth-of-Field Integral Microscopy by Use of a Liquid Lens

3D Imaging and Display Laboratory, Department of Optics, University of Valencia, Burjassot, Valencia E-46100, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 September 2018 / Revised: 28 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 October 2018 / Published: 10 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Depth Sensors and 3D Vision)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3202 KB, uploaded 10 October 2018]   |  


Integral microscopy is a 3D imaging technique that permits the recording of spatial and angular information of microscopic samples. From this information it is possible to calculate a collection of orthographic views with full parallax and to refocus computationally, at will, through the 3D specimen. An important drawback of integral microscopy, especially when dealing with thick samples, is the limited depth of field (DOF) of the perspective views. This imposes a significant limitation on the depth range of computationally refocused images. To overcome this problem, we propose here a new method that is based on the insertion, at the pupil plane of the microscope objective, of an electrically controlled liquid lens (LL) whose optical power can be changed by simply tuning the voltage. This new apparatus has the advantage of controlling the axial position of the objective focal plane while keeping constant the essential parameters of the integral microscope, that is, the magnification, the numerical aperture and the amount of parallax. Thus, given a 3D sample, the new microscope can provide a stack of integral images with complementary depth ranges. The fusion of the set of refocused images permits to enlarge the reconstruction range, obtaining images in focus over the whole region. View Full-Text
Keywords: three-dimensional image acquisition; three-dimensional microscopy; three-dimensional image processing three-dimensional image acquisition; three-dimensional microscopy; three-dimensional image processing

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Llavador, A.; Scrofani, G.; Saavedra, G.; Martinez-Corral, M. Large Depth-of-Field Integral Microscopy by Use of a Liquid Lens. Sensors 2018, 18, 3383.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top