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Open AccessArticle

An Aptamer-Based Biosensor for Direct, Label-Free Detection of Melamine in Raw Milk

NEC Solution Innovators, Innovation Laboratory, 1-18-7, Shinkiba, Koto-ku, Tokyo 136-8627, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3227;
Received: 23 August 2018 / Revised: 19 September 2018 / Accepted: 20 September 2018 / Published: 25 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aptamers and Applications)
Melamine, a nitrogen-rich compound, has been used as a food and milk additive to falsely increase the protein content. However, melamine is toxic, and high melamine levels in food or in milk can cause kidney and urinary problems, or even death. Hence, the detection of melamine in food and milk is desirable, for which numerous detection methods have been developed. Several methods have successfully detected melamine in raw milk; however, they require a sample preparation before the analyses. This study aimed to develop an aptamer-DNAzyme conjugated biosensor for label-free detection of melamine, in raw milk, without any sample preparation. An aptamer-DNAzyme conjugated biosensor was developed via screening using microarray analysis to identify the candidate aptamers followed by an optimization, to reduce the background noise and improve the aptamer properties, thereby, enhancing the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of the screened biosensor. The developed biosensor was evaluated via colorimetric detection and tested with raw milk without any sample preparation, using N-methylmesoporphyrin IX for fluorescence detection. The biosensor displayed significantly higher signal intensity at 2 mM melamine (S/N ratio, 20.2), which was sufficient to detect melamine at high concentrations, in raw milk. View Full-Text
Keywords: aptamer; DNAzyme; biosensor; label-free detection; melamine; sample preparation aptamer; DNAzyme; biosensor; label-free detection; melamine; sample preparation
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Kaneko, N.; Horii, K.; Akitomi, J.; Kato, S.; Shiratori, I.; Waga, I. An Aptamer-Based Biosensor for Direct, Label-Free Detection of Melamine in Raw Milk. Sensors 2018, 18, 3227.

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