Melamine, a nitrogen-rich compound, has been used as a food and milk additive to falsely increase the protein content. However, melamine is toxic, and high melamine levels in food or in milk can cause kidney and urinary problems, or even death. Hence, the detection of melamine in food and milk is desirable, for which numerous detection methods have been developed. Several methods have successfully detected melamine in raw milk; however, they require a sample preparation before the analyses. This study aimed to develop an aptamer-DNAzyme conjugated biosensor for label-free detection of melamine, in raw milk, without any sample preparation. An aptamer-DNAzyme conjugated biosensor was developed via screening using microarray analysis to identify the candidate aptamers followed by an optimization, to reduce the background noise and improve the aptamer properties, thereby, enhancing the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of the screened biosensor. The developed biosensor was evaluated via colorimetric detection and tested with raw milk without any sample preparation, using N
-methylmesoporphyrin IX for fluorescence detection. The biosensor displayed significantly higher signal intensity at 2 mM melamine (S/N ratio, 20.2), which was sufficient to detect melamine at high concentrations, in raw milk.
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