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Open AccessArticle

Modeling the Effect of Optical Signal Multipath

Department of Electronics, University of Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, 28801 Madrid, Spain
Computer and Informatics Engineering Department, Eastern Macedonia and Thrace Institute of Technology, 65404 Kavala, Greece
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2038;
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 21 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Here, we propose a model to determine the effect of multipath in indoor environments when the shape and characteristics of the environment are known. The main paper goal is to model the multipath signal formation to solve, as much as possible, the negative effects in light communications, as well as the indoor positioning errors due to this phenomenon when using optical signals. The methodology followed was: analyze the multipath phenomenon, establish a theoretical approach and propose different models to characterize the behavior of the channel, emitter and receiver. The channel impulse response and received signal strength are obtained from different proposed algorithms. We also propose steps for implementing a numerical procedure to calculate the effects of these multipaths using information that characterizes the environment, transmitter and receiver and their corresponding positions. In addition, the results of an empirical test in a controlled environment are compared with those obtained using the model, in order to validate the latter. The results may largely vary with respect to the cell size used to discretize the environment. We have concluded that a cell size whose side is 20-times smaller than the minimum distance between emitter and receiver (i.e., 10 cm × 10 cm for a 2-m distance) provides almost identical results between the empirical tests and the proposed model, with an affordable computational load. View Full-Text
Keywords: infrared; multipath; reflection modeling; impulse response; indoor optical wireless; indoor positioning system infrared; multipath; reflection modeling; impulse response; indoor optical wireless; indoor positioning system
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De-La-Llana-Calvo, Á.; Lázaro-Galilea, J.L.; Gardel-Vicente, A.; Rodríguez-Navarro, D.; Bravo-Muñoz, I.; Tsirigotis, G.; Iglesias-Miguel, J. Modeling the Effect of Optical Signal Multipath. Sensors 2017, 17, 2038.

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