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Open AccessArticle

A Novel Approach to Measuring Muscle Mechanics in Vehicle Collision Conditions

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva cesta 6, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
TMG-BMC d.o.o., Štihova ulica 24, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Korytkova ulica 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2017, 17(6), 1389;
Received: 20 April 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 14 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
The aim of the study was to evaluate a novel approach to measuring neck muscle load and activity in vehicle collision conditions. A series of sled tests were performed on 10 healthy volunteers at three severity levels to simulate low-severity frontal impacts. Electrical activity—electromyography (EMG)—and muscle mechanical tension was measured bilaterally on the upper trapezius. A novel mechanical contraction (MC) sensor was used to measure the tension on the muscle surface. The neck extensor loads were estimated based on the inverse dynamics approach. The results showed strong linear correlation (Pearson’s coefficient = 0.821) between the estimated neck muscle load and the muscle tension measured with the MC sensor. The peak of the estimated neck muscle force delayed 0.2 ± 30.6 ms on average vs. the peak MC sensor signal compared to the average delay of 61.8 ± 37.4 ms vs. the peak EMG signal. The observed differences in EMG and MC sensor collected signals indicate that the MC sensor offers an additional insight into the analysis of the neck muscle load and activity in impact conditions. This approach enables a more detailed assessment of the muscle-tendon complex load of a vehicle occupant in pre-impact and impact conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomechanics; vehicle occupant; impact; in vivo; active muscle biomechanics; vehicle occupant; impact; in vivo; active muscle
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Krašna, S.; Đorđević, S.; Hribernik, M.; Trajkovski, A. A Novel Approach to Measuring Muscle Mechanics in Vehicle Collision Conditions. Sensors 2017, 17, 1389.

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