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Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1015;

ZnO Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator for the Kinetics Study of Human Blood Coagulation

State Key Laboratory of Mining Disaster Prevention and Control Co-founded by Shandong Province and the Ministry of Science and Technology, College of Electronics, Communications, and Physics, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jikui Luo, Weipeng Xuan and Richard Yong Qing Fu
Received: 27 March 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 3 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acoustic Wave Resonator-Based Sensors)
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Miniaturized and rapid blood coagulation assay technologies are critical in many clinical settings. In this paper, we present a ZnO film bulk acoustic resonator for the kinetic analysis of human blood coagulation. The resonator operated in thickness shear resonance mode at 1.4 GHz. When the resonator contacted the liquid environment, the viscous loading effect was considered as the additional resistance and inductance in the equivalent circuits, resulting in a linear relationship with a slope of approximately −217 kHz/cP between the liquid viscosity and the frequency of the resonator. The downshift of the resonant frequency and the viscosity change during the blood coagulation were correlated to monitor the coagulation process. The sigmoidal trend was observed in the frequency response for the blood samples activated by thromboplastin and calcium ions. The coagulation kinetics involving sequential phases of steady reaction, growth and saturation were revealed through the time-dependent frequency profiles. The enzymatic cascade time, the coagulation rate, the coagulation time and the clot degree were provided by fitting the time-frequency curves. The prothrombin times were compared with the results measured by a standard coagulometer and show a good correlation. Thanks to the excellent potential of integration, miniaturization and the availability of direct digital signals, the film bulk acoustic resonator has promising application for both clinical and personal use coagulation testing technologies. View Full-Text
Keywords: ZnO film; film bulk acoustic resonator; viscosity sensor; coagulation monitoring ZnO film; film bulk acoustic resonator; viscosity sensor; coagulation monitoring

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Chen, D.; Zhang, Z.; Ma, J.; Wang, W. ZnO Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator for the Kinetics Study of Human Blood Coagulation. Sensors 2017, 17, 1015.

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