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Article

SmartFluo: A Method and Affordable Adapter to Measure Chlorophyll a Fluorescence with Smartphones

1
Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Schleusenstrasse 1, 26382 Wilhelmshaven, Germany
2
Life Sciences and Chemistry, Jacobs University, Campus Ring 1, 28759 Bremen, Germany
3
Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: W. Rudolf Seitz
Sensors 2017, 17(4), 678; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17040678
Received: 23 February 2017 / Revised: 21 March 2017 / Accepted: 21 March 2017 / Published: 25 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
In order to increase the monitoring capabilities of inland and coastal waters, there is a need for new, affordable, sensitive and mobile instruments that could be operated semi-automatically in the field. This paper presents a prototype device to measure chlorophyll a fluorescence: the SmartFluo. The device is a combination of a smartphone offering an intuitive operation interface and an adapter implying a cuvette holder, as well as a suitable illumination source. SmartFluo is based on stimulated fluorescence of water constituents such as chlorophyll a. The red band of the digital smartphone camera is sensitive enough to detect quantitatively the characteristic red fluorescence emission. The adapter contains a light source, a strong light emitting diode and additional filters to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio and to suppress the impact of scattering. A novel algorithm utilizing the red band of the camera is provided. Laboratory experiments of the SmartFluo show a linear correlation (R 2 = 0.98) to the chlorophyll a concentrations measured by reference instruments, such as a high-performance benchtop laboratory fluorometer (LS 55, PerkinElmer). View Full-Text
Keywords: citizen science; affordable sensors; marine environment; open laboratory ware; LED; 3D printing citizen science; affordable sensors; marine environment; open laboratory ware; LED; 3D printing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Friedrichs, A.; Busch, J.A.; Van der Woerd, H.J.; Zielinski, O. SmartFluo: A Method and Affordable Adapter to Measure Chlorophyll a Fluorescence with Smartphones. Sensors 2017, 17, 678. https://doi.org/10.3390/s17040678

AMA Style

Friedrichs A, Busch JA, Van der Woerd HJ, Zielinski O. SmartFluo: A Method and Affordable Adapter to Measure Chlorophyll a Fluorescence with Smartphones. Sensors. 2017; 17(4):678. https://doi.org/10.3390/s17040678

Chicago/Turabian Style

Friedrichs, Anna; Busch, Julia A.; Van der Woerd, Hendrik J.; Zielinski, Oliver. 2017. "SmartFluo: A Method and Affordable Adapter to Measure Chlorophyll a Fluorescence with Smartphones" Sensors 17, no. 4: 678. https://doi.org/10.3390/s17040678

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