Next Article in Journal
UW Imaging of Seismic-Physical-Models in Air Using Fiber-Optic Fabry-Perot Interferometer
Previous Article in Journal
Middleware Design for Swarm-Driving Robots Accompanying Humans
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2017, 17(2), 396;

Steady γ-Ray Effects on the Performance of PPP-BOTDA and TW-COTDR Fiber Sensing

Univ Lyon, Laboratoire Hubert Curien (LabHC), Université de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5516, F-42000 Saint-Etienne, France
Agence Nationale Pour la gestion des Déchets Radioactifs (Andra), F-92298 Châtenay-Malabry, France
CEA DAM DIF (French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission), F-91297 Arpajon, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M. N. Passaro
Received: 19 December 2016 / Revised: 30 January 2017 / Accepted: 10 February 2017 / Published: 17 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3365 KB, uploaded 18 February 2017]   |  


We investigated the evolution of the performances of Pulse Pre Pump-Brillouin Time Domain Analysis (PPP-BOTDA) and Tunable Wavelength Coherent Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (TW-COTDR) fiber-based temperature and strain sensors when the sensing optical fiber is exposed to two γ-ray irradiation conditions: (i) at room temperature and a dose rate of 370 Gy(SiO2)/h up to a total ionizing dose (TID) of 56 kGy; (ii) at room temperature and a dose rate of 25 kGy(SiO2)/h up to a TID of 10 MGy. Two main different classes of single-mode optical fibers have been tested in situ, radiation-tolerant ones: fluorine-doped or nitrogen-doped core fibers, as well as Telecom-grade germanosilicate ones. Brillouin and Rayleigh Sensitivities of N-Doped fibers were not reported yet, and these characterizations pave the way for a novel and alternative sensing scheme. Moreover, in these harsh conditions, our results showed that the main parameter affecting the sensor sensitivity remains the Radiation Induced Attenuation (RIA) at its operation wavelength of 1550 nm. RIA limits the maximal sensing range but does not influence the measurement uncertainty. F-doped fiber is the most tolerant against RIA with induced losses below 8 dB/km after a 56 kGy accumulated dose whereas the excess losses of other fibers exceed 22 dB/km. Both Rayleigh and Brillouin signatures that are exploited by the PPP-BOTDA and the TW-COTDR remain unchanged (within our experimental uncertainties). The strain and temperature coefficients of the various fibers under test are not modified by radiations, at these dose/dose rate levels. Consequently, this enables the design of a robust strain and temperature sensing architecture for the monitoring of radioactive waste disposals. View Full-Text
Keywords: PPP-BOTDA; TW-COTDR; gamma radiation; Brillouin scattering; Rayleigh scattering; optical fiber; optical sensors PPP-BOTDA; TW-COTDR; gamma radiation; Brillouin scattering; Rayleigh scattering; optical fiber; optical sensors

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Planes, I.; Girard, S.; Boukenter, A.; Marin, E.; Delepine-Lesoille, S.; Marcandella, C.; Ouerdane, Y. Steady γ-Ray Effects on the Performance of PPP-BOTDA and TW-COTDR Fiber Sensing. Sensors 2017, 17, 396.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top