# Integrated Display and Simulation for Automatic Dependent Surveillance–Broadcast and Traffic Collision Avoidance System Data Fusion

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. ADS-B Minimum System Design

#### 2.1. ADS-B In Minimum System Design

#### 2.1.1. ADS-B and TCAS Integrated Display Development

#### 2.1.2. Airspace Traffic Situation Display Development

#### 2.2. ADS-B Out Minimum System Design

#### 2.2.1. ADS-B Out Data Transmission Based on a Simulation Cockpit Platform

#### 2.2.2. ADS-B Out Data Transmission Based on an UAV Platform

## 3. ADS-B Minimum System Implementation

#### 3.1. ADS-B In Minimum System Implementation

#### 3.1.1. ADS-B and TCAS Integrated Display

#### Simulation Results of Fusion Model Based on VB-IMM Algorithm

#### Application of ADS-B and TCAS Integrated Display

#### 3.1.2. Display Interface Development

#### 3.2. ADS-B Out Minimum System Implementation

#### 3.2.1. ADS-B Out Data Transmission Based On Simulation Cockpit Platform

#### 3.2.2. ADS-B Out Data Transmit Based On UAV Platform

## 4. Conclusions

## Acknowledgments

## Author Contributions

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 8.**Noise estimation of system. (

**a**) Noise estimation of ADS-B; (

**b**) Noise estimation of Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS).

**Figure 9.**Measurement noise and fusion estimation noise. (

**a**) Measurement noise and fusion estimation noise of TCAS; (

**b**) measurement noise and fusion estimation noise of ADS-B.

**Figure 10.**Root mean squared error of statistics. (

**a**) Root mean squared error-Longitude; (

**b**) Root mean squared error-Latitude; (

**c**) Root mean squared error-Height.

**Figure 11.**The CPA calculation results. (

**a**) The CPA calculation results in large time period; (

**b**) The CPA calculation results in small time period.

**Figure 20.**Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) trajectory verification. (

**a**) Flight trajectory with software on the UAV; (

**b**) Flight trajectory from ADS-B signal.

**Table 1.**Simulation sampling period corresponding to different Navigation Accuracy Category for Position (${\mathrm{NAC}}_{P}$ ) values.

$\mathbf{N}\mathbf{A}{\mathbf{C}}_{\mathit{P}}$ | Horizontal Accuracy Bound | Simulation Sampling Period |
---|---|---|

0 | EPU ≥ 18.52 km (10 nm) | 1 s |

1 | EPU < 18.52 km (10 nm) | 1 s |

2 | EPU < 7.408 km (4 nm) | 1 s |

3 | EPU < 7.408 km (4 nm) | 1 s |

4 | EPU < 1852 m (1 nm) | 1 s |

5 | EPU < 926 m (0.5 nm) | 0.8 s |

6 | EPU < 926 m (0.5 nm) | 0.6 s |

7 | EPU < 185.2 m (0.1 nm) | 0.6 s |

8 | EPU < 92.6 m (0.05 nm) | 0.6 s |

9 | EPU < 30 m | 0.8 s |

10 | EPU < 10 m | 1 s |

11 | EPU < 3 m | 1 s |

**Table 2.**Statistics of early alarm and hysteresis alarm during ta (35–45 s), ra (<35 s) in 200 experiments.

Alarm Type | System Categories | ||
---|---|---|---|

TCAS | ADS-B | Fused System | |

False alarm (TA) (frequency) | 1018 | 524 | 361 |

Leak alarm (TA) (frequency) | 883 | 513 | 362 |

False alarm (RA) (frequency) | 1104 | 334 | 172 |

Leak alarm (RA) (frequency) | 1014 | 390 | 192 |

ID | Latitude | Longitude | Altitude | Speed North | Speed West | Speed Vertical |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 31.3268 | 122.629 | 4236.72 | −45.2266 | −312.967 | −1728 |

2 | 31.3854 | 122.902 | 6156.96 | −80.2507 | −364.945 | −1216 |

3 | 30.4038 | 121.241 | 4899.66 | 321.002 | 34.9823 | 64 |

4 | 30.6787 | 121.279 | 4038.6 | 351.002 | 36.9813 | −1408 |

5 | 30.1474 | 121.154 | 5212.08 | 308.041 | 163.924 | 0 |

6 | 31.0127 | 122.763 | 7734.3 | 26.3675 | 477.98 | 1408 |

7 | 31.4885 | 123.445 | 7467.6 | −76.2423 | −351.948 | 64 |

8 | 29.8201 | 120.952 | 6454.14 | 355.048 | 191.911 | −192 |

9 | 31.4381 | 123.173 | 7132.32 | −82.2482 | −362.944 | −1088 |

10 | 31.0003 | 122.692 | 6156.96 | 0.335254 | 421 | 1792 |

11 | 30.2619 | 121.207 | 2834.64 | 263.014 | 87.9569 | 1088 |

12 | 31.7112 | 119.996 | 5394.96 | −369.053 | 205.905 | −2880 |

13 | 29.9003 | 121.456 | 3916.68 | −13.2618 | −336.99 | 1664 |

14 | 29.7201 | 122.295 | 8648.7 | −94.3169 | 456.935 | 64 |

15 | 31.3854 | 122.902 | 6156.96 | −80.2507 | −364.945 | −1216 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Wang, Y.; Xiao, G.; Dai, Z.
Integrated Display and Simulation for Automatic Dependent Surveillance–Broadcast and Traffic Collision Avoidance System Data Fusion. *Sensors* **2017**, *17*, 2611.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s17112611

**AMA Style**

Wang Y, Xiao G, Dai Z.
Integrated Display and Simulation for Automatic Dependent Surveillance–Broadcast and Traffic Collision Avoidance System Data Fusion. *Sensors*. 2017; 17(11):2611.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s17112611

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Wang, Yanran, Gang Xiao, and Zhouyun Dai.
2017. "Integrated Display and Simulation for Automatic Dependent Surveillance–Broadcast and Traffic Collision Avoidance System Data Fusion" *Sensors* 17, no. 11: 2611.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s17112611