Next Article in Journal
Correction: A New Quaternion-Based Kalman Filter for Real-Time Attitude Estimation Using the Two-Step Geometrically-Intuitive Correction Algorithm. Sensors 2017, 17, 2146
Next Article in Special Issue
A Dependable Localization Algorithm for Survivable Belt-Type Sensor Networks
Previous Article in Journal
Local Positioning System Using Flickering Infrared LEDs
Previous Article in Special Issue
Smart Collaborative Caching for Information-Centric IoT in Fog Computing
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2017, 17(11), 2525; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17112525

A Middleware Solution for Wireless IoT Applications in Sparse Smart Cities

1
DISI—Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Bologna, Bologna 40136, Italy
2
DMI—Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Ferrara, Ferrara 44122, Italy
3
DE—Engineering Department, University of Ferrara, Ferrara 44122, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 30 October 2017 / Published: 3 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next Generation Wireless Technologies for Internet of Things)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2093 KB, uploaded 3 November 2017]   |  

Abstract

The spread of off-the-shelf mobile devices equipped with multiple wireless interfaces together with sophisticated sensors is paving the way to novel wireless Internet of Things (IoT) environments, characterized by multi-hop infrastructure-less wireless networks where devices carried by users act as sensors/actuators as well as network nodes. In particular, the paper presents Real Ad-hoc Multi-hop Peer-to peer-Wireless IoT Application (RAMP-WIA), a novel solution that facilitates the development, deployment, and management of applications in sparse Smart City environments, characterized by users willing to collaborate by allowing new applications to be deployed on their smartphones to remotely monitor and control fixed/mobile devices. RAMP-WIA allows users to dynamically configure single-hop wireless links, to manage opportunistically multi-hop packet dispatching considering that the network topology (together with the availability of sensors and actuators) may abruptly change, to actuate reliably sensor nodes specifically considering that only part of them could be actually reachable in a timely manner, and to upgrade dynamically the nodes through over-the-air distribution of new software components. The paper also reports the performance of RAMP-WIA on simple but realistic cases of small-scale deployment scenarios with off-the-shelf Android smartphones and Raspberry Pi devices; these results show not only the feasibility and soundness of the proposed approach, but also the efficiency of the middleware implemented when deployed on real testbeds. View Full-Text
Keywords: Internet-of-Things; smart city; spontaneous connectivity; opportunistic networking; distributed actuation Internet-of-Things; smart city; spontaneous connectivity; opportunistic networking; distributed actuation
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Bellavista, P.; Giannelli, C.; Lanzone, S.; Riberto, G.; Stefanelli, C.; Tortonesi, M. A Middleware Solution for Wireless IoT Applications in Sparse Smart Cities. Sensors 2017, 17, 2525.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top