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Sensors 2017, 17(11), 2525;

A Middleware Solution for Wireless IoT Applications in Sparse Smart Cities

DISI—Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Bologna, Bologna 40136, Italy
DMI—Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Ferrara, Ferrara 44122, Italy
DE—Engineering Department, University of Ferrara, Ferrara 44122, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 30 October 2017 / Published: 3 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next Generation Wireless Technologies for Internet of Things)
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The spread of off-the-shelf mobile devices equipped with multiple wireless interfaces together with sophisticated sensors is paving the way to novel wireless Internet of Things (IoT) environments, characterized by multi-hop infrastructure-less wireless networks where devices carried by users act as sensors/actuators as well as network nodes. In particular, the paper presents Real Ad-hoc Multi-hop Peer-to peer-Wireless IoT Application (RAMP-WIA), a novel solution that facilitates the development, deployment, and management of applications in sparse Smart City environments, characterized by users willing to collaborate by allowing new applications to be deployed on their smartphones to remotely monitor and control fixed/mobile devices. RAMP-WIA allows users to dynamically configure single-hop wireless links, to manage opportunistically multi-hop packet dispatching considering that the network topology (together with the availability of sensors and actuators) may abruptly change, to actuate reliably sensor nodes specifically considering that only part of them could be actually reachable in a timely manner, and to upgrade dynamically the nodes through over-the-air distribution of new software components. The paper also reports the performance of RAMP-WIA on simple but realistic cases of small-scale deployment scenarios with off-the-shelf Android smartphones and Raspberry Pi devices; these results show not only the feasibility and soundness of the proposed approach, but also the efficiency of the middleware implemented when deployed on real testbeds. View Full-Text
Keywords: Internet-of-Things; smart city; spontaneous connectivity; opportunistic networking; distributed actuation Internet-of-Things; smart city; spontaneous connectivity; opportunistic networking; distributed actuation

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Bellavista, P.; Giannelli, C.; Lanzone, S.; Riberto, G.; Stefanelli, C.; Tortonesi, M. A Middleware Solution for Wireless IoT Applications in Sparse Smart Cities. Sensors 2017, 17, 2525.

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