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Open AccessArticle

Nanostructured Tip-Shaped Biosensors: Application of Six Sigma Approach for Enhanced Manufacturing

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
School of Engineering and Computer Science, Washington State University, Vancouver, WA 98686, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Huangxian Ju
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 17;
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 10 December 2016 / Accepted: 20 December 2016 / Published: 23 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiosensing for Sensors)
PDF [6230 KB, uploaded 23 December 2016]


Nanostructured tip-shaped biosensors have drawn attention for biomolecule detection as they are promising for highly sensitive and specific detection of a target analyte. Using a nanostructured tip, the sensitivity is increased to identify individual molecules because of the high aspect ratio structure. Various detection methods, such as electrochemistry, fluorescence microcopy, and Raman spectroscopy, have been attempted to enhance the sensitivity and the specificity. Due to the confined path of electrons, electrochemical measurement using a nanotip enables the detection of single molecules. When an electric field is combined with capillary action and fluid flow, target molecules can be effectively concentrated onto a nanotip surface for detection. To enhance the concentration efficacy, a dendritic nanotip rather than a single tip could be used to detect target analytes, such as nanoparticles, cells, and DNA. However, reproducible fabrication with relation to specific detection remains a challenge due to the instability of a manufacturing method, resulting in inconsistent shape. In this paper, nanostructured biosensors are reviewed with our experimental results using dendritic nanotips for sequence specific detection of DNA. By the aid of the Six Sigma approach, the fabrication yield of dendritic nanotips increases from 20.0% to 86.6%. Using the nanotips, DNA is concentrated and detected in a sequence specific way with the detection limit equivalent to 1000 CFU/mL. The pros and cons of a nanotip biosensor are evaluated in conjunction with future prospects. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanotip; biosensor; sensitivity; specificity; nanofabrication; six-sigma approach nanotip; biosensor; sensitivity; specificity; nanofabrication; six-sigma approach

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Kahng, S.-J.; Kim, J.-H.; Chung, J.-H. Nanostructured Tip-Shaped Biosensors: Application of Six Sigma Approach for Enhanced Manufacturing. Sensors 2017, 17, 17.

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