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Sensors 2016, 16(8), 1316;

Data-Aware Retrodiction for Asynchronous Harmonic Measurement in a Cyber-Physical Energy System

State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments, Department of Precision Instrument, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Albert M. K. Cheng
Received: 29 March 2016 / Revised: 4 August 2016 / Accepted: 12 August 2016 / Published: 18 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Real-Time and Cyber-Physical Systems)
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Cyber-physical energy systems provide a networked solution for safety, reliability and efficiency problems in smart grids. On the demand side, the secure and trustworthy energy supply requires real-time supervising and online power quality assessing. Harmonics measurement is necessary in power quality evaluation. However, under the large-scale distributed metering architecture, harmonic measurement faces the out-of-sequence measurement (OOSM) problem, which is the result of latencies in sensing or the communication process and brings deviations in data fusion. This paper depicts a distributed measurement network for large-scale asynchronous harmonic analysis and exploits a nonlinear autoregressive model with exogenous inputs (NARX) network to reorder the out-of-sequence measuring data. The NARX network gets the characteristics of the electrical harmonics from practical data rather than the kinematic equations. Thus, the data-aware network approximates the behavior of the practical electrical parameter with real-time data and improves the retrodiction accuracy. Theoretical analysis demonstrates that the data-aware method maintains a reasonable consumption of computing resources. Experiments on a practical testbed of a cyber-physical system are implemented, and harmonic measurement and analysis accuracy are adopted to evaluate the measuring mechanism under a distributed metering network. Results demonstrate an improvement of the harmonics analysis precision and validate the asynchronous measuring method in cyber-physical energy systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: out-of-sequence measurement; cyber-physical energy systems; harmonic measurement; data-aware out-of-sequence measurement; cyber-physical energy systems; harmonic measurement; data-aware

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Liu, Y.; Wang, X.; Liu, Y.; Cui, S. Data-Aware Retrodiction for Asynchronous Harmonic Measurement in a Cyber-Physical Energy System. Sensors 2016, 16, 1316.

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