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Open AccessArticle

Wideband Fully-Programmable Dual-Mode CMOS Analogue Front-End for Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy

Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, WC1E 7JE London, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M. N. Passaro
Sensors 2016, 16(8), 1159;
Received: 21 May 2016 / Revised: 15 July 2016 / Accepted: 19 July 2016 / Published: 25 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
This paper presents a multi-channel dual-mode CMOS analogue front-end (AFE) for electrochemical and bioimpedance analysis. Current-mode and voltage-mode readouts, integrated on the same chip, can provide an adaptable platform to correlate single-cell biosensor studies with large-scale tissue or organ analysis for real-time cancer detection, imaging and characterization. The chip, implemented in a 180-nm CMOS technology, combines two current-readout (CR) channels and four voltage-readout (VR) channels suitable for both bipolar and tetrapolar electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis. Each VR channel occupies an area of 0.48 mm 2 , is capable of an operational bandwidth of 8 MHz and a linear gain in the range between −6 dB and 42 dB. The gain of the CR channel can be set to 10 kΩ, 50 kΩ or 100 kΩ and is capable of 80-dB dynamic range, with a very linear response for input currents between 10 nA and 100 μ A. Each CR channel occupies an area of 0.21 mm 2 . The chip consumes between 530 μ A and 690 μ A per channel and operates from a 1.8-V supply. The chip was used to measure the impedance of capacitive interdigitated electrodes in saline solution. Measurements show close matching with results obtained using a commercial impedance analyser. The chip will be part of a fully flexible and configurable fully-integrated dual-mode EIS system for impedance sensors and bioimpedance analysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: analogue readout; electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS); integrated circuits analogue readout; electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS); integrated circuits
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Valente, V.; Demosthenous, A. Wideband Fully-Programmable Dual-Mode CMOS Analogue Front-End for Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy. Sensors 2016, 16, 1159.

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