Wideband Fully-Programmable Dual-Mode CMOS Analogue Front-End for Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy
Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, WC1E 7JE London, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M. N. Passaro
Received: 21 May 2016 / Revised: 15 July 2016 / Accepted: 19 July 2016 / Published: 25 July 2016
This paper presents a multi-channel dual-mode CMOS analogue front-end (AFE) for electrochemical and bioimpedance analysis. Current-mode and voltage-mode readouts, integrated on the same chip, can provide an adaptable platform to correlate single-cell biosensor studies with large-scale tissue or organ analysis for real-time cancer detection, imaging and characterization. The chip, implemented in a 180-nm CMOS technology, combines two current-readout (CR) channels and four voltage-readout (VR) channels suitable for both bipolar and tetrapolar electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis. Each VR channel occupies an area of 0.48 mm
, is capable of an operational bandwidth of 8 MHz and a linear gain in the range between −6 dB and 42 dB. The gain of the CR channel can be set to 10 kΩ, 50 kΩ or 100 kΩ and is capable of 80-dB dynamic range, with a very linear response for input currents between 10 nA and 100
A. Each CR channel occupies an area of 0.21 mm
. The chip consumes between 530
A and 690
A per channel and operates from a 1.8-V supply. The chip was used to measure the impedance of capacitive interdigitated electrodes in saline solution. Measurements show close matching with results obtained using a commercial impedance analyser. The chip will be part of a fully flexible and configurable fully-integrated dual-mode EIS system for impedance sensors and bioimpedance analysis.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
Share & Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Valente, V.; Demosthenous, A. Wideband Fully-Programmable Dual-Mode CMOS Analogue Front-End for Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy. Sensors 2016, 16, 1159.
Valente V, Demosthenous A. Wideband Fully-Programmable Dual-Mode CMOS Analogue Front-End for Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy. Sensors. 2016; 16(8):1159.
Valente, Virgilio; Demosthenous, Andreas. 2016. "Wideband Fully-Programmable Dual-Mode CMOS Analogue Front-End for Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy." Sensors 16, no. 8: 1159.
Show more citation formats
Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.
[Return to top]
For more information on the journal statistics, click here
Multiple requests from the same IP address are counted as one view.