- freely available
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1138; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071138
1.1. Incentives and Selfishness
1.2. Contribution of this Work
2. Related Work
3. Proposed Incentive Scheme for Delay-Constrained Data Query and Feedback
3.1.3. Delay-Constrained Category Contact Probability
3.3. Utility Function
3.4. Overview of the Proposed Scheme
- When User i meets User j, he or she first updates his or her , and , respectively. User i creates his or her candidate query, reply and feedback lists, i.e., , and . , and are sorted in a decreasing order of the reward of data packets. Note that they are the queries, replies and feedbacks at User j, but not at User i.
- User i checks if he or she is a data provider for any query in . If he or she is, User i requests those queries from User j. For each received query, e.g., Query q, User i replies to it, gives it back and authorizes User j to deliver it to the query issuer. Upon receiving the reply, User j decreases the deliveries of Query q by one, i.e., .
- User i checks if it is a query issuer of any reply in . If it is, User i pays User j a number of credits, which are equal to the appraisal of the reply, and User j removes the reply from .
- User i checks if he or she is a receiver for any feedback in . If he or she is, User i pays User j a number of credits, which are equal to the appraisal of the feedback, and User j removes the feedback from . At the same time, User j examines if he or she is a data provider for queries, a query issuer for replies or a receiver for feedbacks similarly.
- Users i and j bargain about which queries, replies and feedbacks should be traded. The bargaining process is formulated as a two-person cooperative game, and the Nash theorem is applied to reach the optimal solution. Users i and j exchange queries, replies and feedbacks pair by pair according to the Nash bargaining solution.
|Algorithm 1: Incentive algorithm for delay-constrained data query and feedback.|
3.5. Game Theory Model
4. Distributed Online Auction Algorithm
4.2. Protocol Design
5. Performance Evaluation
5.1. Simulation Setup
5.2. Performance Comparison
Conflicts of Interest
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|The deliveries of Query q|
|The deliveries of Feedback f|
|The appraisal of Query q|
|The appraisal of Feedback f|
|The delay-constrained category contact probability ()|
|The direct delay-constrained contact probability of User i with data providers in Category c with remaining Delay Budget δ|
|The indirect delay-constrained contact probability of User i with data providers in Category c with remaining Delay Budget δ|
|The reward if User i trades Query q in Category c with Delay Budget δ|
|The reward if User i trades Reply in Category c with Delay Budget δ|
|The delay-constrained reply contact probability ()|
|The reward if User i trades Feedback f in Category c within Delay Budget δ|
|The delay-constrained feedback contact probability ()|
|Reply Rate||Reply Delay||Overhead|
|Incentive with Auction||h||7|
|Reply Rate||Reply Delay||Overhead|
|Incentive with Auction||h||9|
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