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Correction: Vázquez-Arellano, M., et al. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications—A Review. Sensors 2016, 16, 618
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Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1038;

Developing a Penetrometer-Based Mapping System for Visualizing Silage Bulk Density from the Bunker Silo Face

College of Information and Electrical Engineering, China Agricultural University, Key Lab of Agricultural Information Acquisition Technology, Ministry of Agriculture, 100083 Beijing, China
Department of Agricultural Engineering, The University of Bonn, 53115 Bonn, Germany
School of Technology, Beijing Forestry University, 100083 Beijing, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Simon X. Yang
Received: 25 April 2016 / Revised: 19 June 2016 / Accepted: 1 July 2016 / Published: 5 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Agriculture)
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For silage production, high bulk density (BD) is critical to minimize aerobic deterioration facilitated by oxygen intrusion. To precisely assess packing quality for bunker silos, there is a desire to visualize the BD distribution within the silage. In this study, a penetrometer-based mapping system was developed. The data processing included filtering of the penetration friction component (PFC) out of the penetration resistance (PR), transfer of the corrected penetration resistance (PRc) to BD, incorporation of Kriged interpolation for data expansion and map generation. The experiment was conducted in a maize bunker silo (width: 8 m, middle height: 3 m). The BD distributions near the bunker silo face were represented using two map groups, one related to horizontal- and the other to vertical-density distribution patterns. We also presented a comparison between the map-based BD results and core sampling data. Agreement between the two measurement approaches (RMSE = 19.175 kg·m−3) demonstrates that the developed penetrometer mapping system may be beneficial for rapid assessment of aerobic deterioration potential in bunker silos. View Full-Text
Keywords: bunker silo; silage; bulk density; penetrometer; measurement; mapping bunker silo; silage; bulk density; penetrometer; measurement; mapping

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Li, M.; Jungbluth, K.H.; Sun, Y.; Cheng, Q.; Maack, C.; Buescher, W.; Lin, J.; Zhou, H.; Wang, Z. Developing a Penetrometer-Based Mapping System for Visualizing Silage Bulk Density from the Bunker Silo Face. Sensors 2016, 16, 1038.

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