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Article

A Comparative Study of the Applied Methods for Estimating Deflection of the Vertical in Terrestrial Geodetic Measurements

1
DICAM—University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 2, Bologna 40136, Italy
2
Istituto di Radioastronomia (IRA)—Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF) Via P. Gobetti, 101 Bologna 40129, Italy
3
ETH Zurich—Institute of Geodesy and Photogrammetry, Stefano-Franscini-Platz 5, Zurich 8093, Switzerland
4
University eCampus, via Isimbardi 10, Novedrate, CO 22060, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Jason K. Levy
Sensors 2016, 16(4), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16040565
Received: 23 February 2016 / Revised: 13 April 2016 / Accepted: 15 April 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
This paper compares three different methods capable of estimating the deflection of the vertical (DoV): one is based on the joint use of high precision spirit leveling and Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), a second uses astro-geodetic measurements and the third gravimetric geoid models. The working data sets refer to the geodetic International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) co-location sites of Medicina (Northern, Italy) and Noto (Sicily), these latter being excellent test beds for our investigations. The measurements were planned and realized to estimate the DoV with a level of precision comparable to the angular accuracy achievable in high precision network measured by modern high-end total stations. The three methods are in excellent agreement, with an operational supremacy of the astro-geodetic method, being faster and more precise than the others. The method that combines leveling and GNSS has slightly larger standard deviations; although well within the 1 arcsec level, which was assumed as threshold. Finally, the geoid model based method, whose 2.5 arcsec standard deviations exceed this threshold, is also statistically consistent with the others and should be used to determine the DoV components where local ad hoc measurements are lacking. View Full-Text
Keywords: deflection of the vertical; tie vectors; ITRF; QDaedalus; ITALGEO2005 deflection of the vertical; tie vectors; ITRF; QDaedalus; ITALGEO2005
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vittuari, L.; Tini, M.A.; Sarti, P.; Serantoni, E.; Borghi, A.; Negusini, M.; Guillaume, S. A Comparative Study of the Applied Methods for Estimating Deflection of the Vertical in Terrestrial Geodetic Measurements. Sensors 2016, 16, 565. https://doi.org/10.3390/s16040565

AMA Style

Vittuari L, Tini MA, Sarti P, Serantoni E, Borghi A, Negusini M, Guillaume S. A Comparative Study of the Applied Methods for Estimating Deflection of the Vertical in Terrestrial Geodetic Measurements. Sensors. 2016; 16(4):565. https://doi.org/10.3390/s16040565

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vittuari, Luca, Maria A. Tini, Pierguido Sarti, Eugenio Serantoni, Alessandra Borghi, Monia Negusini, and Sébastien Guillaume. 2016. "A Comparative Study of the Applied Methods for Estimating Deflection of the Vertical in Terrestrial Geodetic Measurements" Sensors 16, no. 4: 565. https://doi.org/10.3390/s16040565

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