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Sensors 2016, 16(3), 379;

Dual-Phase Lock-In Amplifier Based on FPGA for Low-Frequencies Experiments

Laboratorio de Mecatrónica, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Cerro de las Campanas, Col. Las Campanas, S/N, Querétaro 76010, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M. N. Passaro
Received: 12 December 2015 / Revised: 2 March 2016 / Accepted: 8 March 2016 / Published: 16 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Full-Text   |   PDF [4100 KB, uploaded 16 March 2016]   |  


Photothermal techniques allow the detection of characteristics of material without invading it. Researchers have developed hardware for some specific Phase and Amplitude detection (Lock-In Function) applications, eliminating space and unnecessary electronic functions, among others. This work shows the development of a Digital Lock-In Amplifier based on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) for low-frequency applications. This system allows selecting and generating the appropriated frequency depending on the kind of experiment or material studied. The results show good frequency stability in the order of 1.0 × 10−9 Hz, which is considered good linearity and repeatability response for the most common Laboratory Amplitude and Phase Shift detection devices, with a low error and standard deviation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Field-Programmable-Gate-Array; Phase-Shift-Detection; Lock-In-Amplifier; frequency-stability Field-Programmable-Gate-Array; Phase-Shift-Detection; Lock-In-Amplifier; frequency-stability

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Macias-Bobadilla, G.; Rodríguez-Reséndiz, J.; Mota-Valtierra, G.; Soto-Zarazúa, G.; Méndez-Loyola, M.; Garduño-Aparicio, M. Dual-Phase Lock-In Amplifier Based on FPGA for Low-Frequencies Experiments. Sensors 2016, 16, 379.

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