Next Article in Journal
Outage Performance Analysis of Relay Selection Schemes in Wireless Energy Harvesting Cooperative Networks over Non-Identical Rayleigh Fading Channels
Next Article in Special Issue
Protocol to Exploit Waiting Resources for UASNs
Previous Article in Journal
A Novel General Imaging Formation Algorithm for GNSS-Based Bistatic SAR
Previous Article in Special Issue
Measurement and Modeling of Narrowband Channels for Ultrasonic Underwater Communications
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2016, 16(3), 297;

A Novel Cooperative Opportunistic Routing Scheme for Underwater Sensor Networks

School of Engineering and Built Environment, Glasgow Caledonian University, Lanarkshire, Glasgow G4 0BA, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jaime Lloret Mauri
Received: 15 December 2015 / Revised: 1 February 2016 / Accepted: 22 February 2016 / Published: 26 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks 2016)
Full-Text   |   PDF [781 KB, uploaded 26 February 2016]   |  


Increasing attention has recently been devoted to underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) because of their capabilities in the ocean monitoring and resource discovery. UWSNs are faced with different challenges, the most notable of which is perhaps how to efficiently deliver packets taking into account all of the constraints of the available acoustic communication channel. The opportunistic routing provides a reliable solution with the aid of intermediate nodes’ collaboration to relay a packet toward the destination. In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol, called opportunistic void avoidance routing (OVAR), to address the void problem and also the energy-reliability trade-off in the forwarding set selection. OVAR takes advantage of distributed beaconing, constructs the adjacency graph at each hop and selects a forwarding set that holds the best trade-off between reliability and energy efficiency. The unique features of OVAR in selecting the candidate nodes in the vicinity of each other leads to the resolution of the hidden node problem. OVAR is also able to select the forwarding set in any direction from the sender, which increases its flexibility to bypass any kind of void area with the minimum deviation from the optimal path. The results of our extensive simulation study show that OVAR outperforms other protocols in terms of the packet delivery ratio, energy consumption, end-to-end delay, hop count and traversed distance. View Full-Text
Keywords: routing protocol; void area; underwater sensor network routing protocol; void area; underwater sensor network

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ghoreyshi, S.M.; Shahrabi, A.; Boutaleb, T. A Novel Cooperative Opportunistic Routing Scheme for Underwater Sensor Networks. Sensors 2016, 16, 297.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top