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Open AccessArticle

Underwater Electromagnetic Sensor Networks, Part II: Localization and Network Simulations

Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Telecomunicación (ETSIT), Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Av. Complutense 30, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Instituto para el Desarrollo Tecnológico y la Innovación en Comunicaciones (IDeTIC), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC), 35017 Las Palmas, Spain
Plataforma Oceánica de Canarias (PLOCAN), Telde, 35200 Las Palmas, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2176;
Received: 7 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 17 December 2016
PDF [473 KB, uploaded 21 December 2016]


In the first part of the paper, we modeled and characterized the underwater radio channel in shallowwaters. In the second part,we analyze the application requirements for an underwaterwireless sensor network (U-WSN) operating in the same environment and perform detailed simulations. We consider two localization applications, namely self-localization and navigation aid, and propose algorithms that work well under the specific constraints associated with U-WSN, namely low connectivity, low data rates and high packet loss probability. We propose an algorithm where the sensor nodes collaboratively estimate their unknown positions in the network using a low number of anchor nodes and distance measurements from the underwater channel. Once the network has been self-located, we consider a node estimating its position for underwater navigation communicating with neighboring nodes. We also propose a communication system and simulate the whole electromagnetic U-WSN in the Castalia simulator to evaluate the network performance, including propagation impairments (e.g., noise, interference), radio parameters (e.g., modulation scheme, bandwidth, transmit power), hardware limitations (e.g., clock drift, transmission buffer) and complete MAC and routing protocols. We also explain the changes that have to be done to Castalia in order to perform the simulations. In addition, we propose a parametric model of the communication channel that matches well with the results from the first part of this paper. Finally, we provide simulation results for some illustrative scenarios. View Full-Text
Keywords: underwater communications; ad hoc networks; radio-frequency; localization; Castalia underwater communications; ad hoc networks; radio-frequency; localization; Castalia

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Zazo, J.; Macua, S.V.; Zazo, S.; Pérez, M.; Pérez-Álvarez, I.; Jiménez, E.; Cardona, L.; Brito, J.H.; Quevedo, E. Underwater Electromagnetic Sensor Networks, Part II: Localization and Network Simulations. Sensors 2016, 16, 2176.

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