- Urban Mobility: This requires solutions in alternative and clean energy, cleaner public transport, efficient logistics and city planning.
- Environment and Living Conditions: With the aim to improve the efficiency of cities, neighborhoods and houses, it is necessary to increase the use of renewable energy, reduce consumption, prepare for changes and integrate them into city resources, etc.
- Management of resources: This improves the integration between infrastructures and processes through new IT and communication technologies for use in energy and transport.
- The Internet of Things (IoT), that enables integration between people and any element or object present in the cities.
- The Internet of Services (IoS), that enables the integration between services that manage the different systems under the same ontology, enabling interoperability, whilst managing multiple sources of information.
- The Internet of People (IoP), that enables cities to take advantage of people’s knowledge as a network of interconnected global knowledge, whilst sharing their environment and status within the context of the city.
2.1. Near Field Communication (NFC)
- Active mode of communication: Both devices generate a radio frequency (RF) signal to transmit data without the need to pair, as is the case with other technologies.
- Passive communication mode: Only one of the devices generates the radio frequency field. The second device, the passive one (named NFC Tag), acts as a receptor and uses a technique called “charge modulation” to transfer information coming back from the active device or initiator.
- Card emulation is used when the NFC device works as a contactless card and can be used to manage payment systems based on different methods such as Mifare, Visa payWave, MasterCard Pay Pass or American Express Express Pay.
- Reader/Writer is used to modify, store or read data from a passive element or NFCTag. In the case of reading, the active device, which receives the information, may be configured to carry out an action depending on the type of information read.
- Peer to Peer is specifically for active NFC devices, establishing a link between two devices, generally mobile phones (smartphones), which allows an exchange of information between the two.
2.1.1. Advantages and Disadvantages
2.1.2. Hardware and Software
- Mobile devices with NFC: Smartphones are the most well-known and used mobile devices, although they are not the only ones, as we have mentioned above. They allow us to take advantage of different options offered by NFC ecosystems and normally act as active elements within the NFC system.
- NFC Readers: These devices capable of accessing information from other NFC devices and sending it to other elements for processing. They are also in active mode during interactions.
- NFC Tags: These are RFID tags without an integrated feed source. They are in passive mode within the NFC system.
- Type 1: This is based on the ISO/IEC 14443A standard. It is for reading or writing with the option to block for read-only. Storage size is 96 bytes, expandable to 2 Kbytes. The transmission speed is 106 Kbps .
- Type 2: This has similar characteristics to Type 1 but its storage size is different (48 bytes expandable to 2 Kbytes) .
- Type 3: This is based on the Japanese industrial standard JIS X 6319-4 (Felica). It is pre-configured to be for read/write or read-only during the manufacturing stage. This type can reach up to 1 Mbytes .
- Type 4: This is compatible with the ISO/IEC 14443A&B standard and can be manufactured for read/write or read-only. The difference between these standards is the modulation and initialization of transmission speeds, which can reach up to 32 Kbytes of storage .
- Type 5: This is used for storing NDEF messages in Picopass 2K/32K and Picotag 2K, using the ISO14443B-3 protocol and supported by the ISO/IEC 15693 (NFC-V) standard that allows interaction with RFID tags .
2.1.3. Current Status
2.2. Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)
2.2.1. iBeacon Specification
- iBeacon Prefix (9 bytes): This represents a hexadecimal code that stores: (a) transmissions in LE mode, i.e., it only broadcasts-there is no connection; (b) specific manufacturing data; (c) Apple’s Bluetooth Sig ID and (d) a secondary identifier.
- Proximity UUID (16 bytes): This is an identifier unique to the beacon, a standard 16 byte/128 bit (BLE UUID) that is often used within the company.
- Major number (2 bytes): This identifies a sub group of beacons inside a larger group.
- Minor number (2 bytes): This is used to identify each beacon individually.
- TX power (1 byte): This is a value that indicates the intensity of the signal one metre away from the device. This parameter has to be calibrated for each device by the user or the manufacturer.
- AD LENGTH (1 byte): This is not modifiable by the user and indicates the package of data of the notifications.
- AD TYPE (1 byte): This is also not modifiable and indicates the type of package.
- MFG ID (2 bytes): This is the manufacturer’s Company code, assigned by Bluetooth SIG.
- BEACON CODE (2 bytes): This is the AltBeacon notification code.
- BEACON ID (20 bytes): This is the beacon’s unique identifier; the first 16 bytes have to be unique to the organization’s notifications. The rest of the bytes can be subdivided depending on the needs of each case of usage.
- RSSI (1 byte): This is a value that indicates the intensity of the signal at one metre from the device. The number must be calibrated for each device by the user or the manufacturer.
- MFG RESERVED (1 byte): This is reserved by the manufacturer to implement special functions.
2.2.3. Eddystone Open Beacon
- The unique Eddystone-UID identification number of the beacon: This is similar to the UUID of the iBeacon. With this type of frame, push notifications or associated application actions can be unlinked.
- Eddystone-URL: This is the evolution of UriBeacon and enables URLs to be sent by the beacons. This information is collected by user devices and organized according to the proximity of the transmitting beacons.
- Eddystone-TLM (telemetry information): This is used to transmit data obtained from the sensors. This type of connection allows it to activate different actions, depending on different conditions, such as the temperature, air or noise pollution or humidity levels.
2.3. Visible Light Communication (VLC)
Advantages and Disadvantages
- The transmission is influenced by blocking from objects, needing efficient recuperation protocols.
- The transmission of binary data is created by switching the LED on and off rapidly, losing the information over the width and phase of the wave.
- The LEDs flickering produces changes in the color of the light that can influence the mood of the users .
- Receiving pulsated light over long periods of time can cause users long term problems to mood and to the pupils of their eyes .
- It is still in the research and development stage. Companies have recently started commercializing their products but there is a lack of standardization or access to them.
- LiFi networks in indoor spaces (offices, hospitals, theatres, etc.), resolving saturation problems in areas where there is a high demand for WiFi [107,108], and emission problems of RF, which can interfere with sensitive environments, such as hospitals [109,110], chemical industries, etc. What is more, in indoor spaces, the LED infrastructure can be used as a system of localization, detection and guide , information, marketing, etc. [112,113,114].
- Underwater communication, given that it provides a higher speed and freedom from interferences than RF communication in this environment .
3. Research Methodology
3.1. NFC, BLE and VLC in Smart Cities
3.1.1. Administration, Governance
3.1.3. Healthcare and Social Services
3.1.4. Public Safety
3.1.5. Tourism, Recreation, and Culture
3.1.6. Transportation, Mobility and Payment
3.1.7. Sustainability (Environment, Energy, Smart Buildings)
3.2. Information and Knowledge in the Smart City
3.3. Future Trends of NFC, BLE and VLC in the Smart Cities
3.3.1. Related to Transport and Mobility
3.3.2. Related to Health Care and Social Services
3.3.3. Related to Retail and Commerce
3.3.4. Related to Tourism, Recreation and Culture
3.3.5. Related to Governance, Public Safety and Security
3.3.6. Related to Sustainability and Smart Building and Homes
Conflicts of Interest
- World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision, Highlights. Available online: https://esa.Un.Org/unpd/wup/publications/files/wup2014-highlights.Pdf (accessed on 23 August 2016).
- Ishida, T.; Isbister, K. Digital Cities: Technologies, Experiences, and Future Perspectives; Springer: Heidelberg/Berlin, Germany, 2000. [Google Scholar]
- Mapping Smart Cities in the EU. Available online: http://www.rand.org/pubs/external_publications/EP50486.html (accessed on 12 August 2016).
- Anthopoulos, L.G.; Reddick, C.G. Understanding electronic government research and Smart city: A framework and empirical evidence. Inform. Polity 2016, 21, 99–117. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gubbi, J.; Buyya, R.; Marusic, S.; Palaniswami, M. Internet of things (IoT): A vision, architectural elements, and future directions. Future Gen. Comput. Syst. 2013, 29, 1645–1660. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Atzori, L.; Iera, A.; Morabito, G. The internet of things: A survey. Comput. Netw. 2010, 54, 2787–2805. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Zhang, Q.; Cheng, L.; Boutaba, R. Cloud computing: State-of-the-art and research challenges. J. Internet Serv. Appl. 2010, 1, 7–18. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sundmaeker, H.; Guillemin, P.; Friess, P.; Woelfflé, S. Vision and Challenges for Realising the Internet of Things; European Commission: Brussels, Belgium, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Perera, C.; Zaslavsky, A.; Christen, P.; Georgakopoulos, D. Sensing as a service model for smart cities supported by internet of things. Trans. Emerg. Telecommun. Technol. 2014, 25, 81–93. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hernández-Muñoz, J.M.; Vercher, J.B.; Muñoz, L.; Galache, J.A.; Presser, M.; Gómez, L.A.H.; Pettersson, J. Smart cities at the forefront of the future internet. In Future Internet Assembly; Springer: Heidelberg/Berlin, Germany, 2011; pp. 447–462. [Google Scholar]
- Sundmaeker, H.; Guillemin, P.; Friess, P.; Woelfflé, S. Vision and Challenges for Realising the Internet of Things, Cluster of European Research Projects on the Internet of Things; European Commission: Brussels, Belgium, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Inspiring Future Cities & Urban Services: Shaping the Future of Urban Development & Services Initiative. Available online: https://www.weforum.org/reports/inspiring-future-cities-urban-services-shaping-the-future-of-urban-development-services-initiative/ (accessed on 12 June 2016).
- Herrera, L.L.M.; Sánchez, A.G. Ciudades Inteligentes: Oportunidades Para Generar Soluciones Sostenibles; Cintel: Hertfordshire, UK, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Sun, Y.; Song, H.; Jara, A.J.; Bie, R. Internet of things and big data analytics for smart and connected communities. IEEE Access 2016, 4, 766–773. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- A Technical Overview of Lora and Lorawan. Available online: https://www.Lora-alliance.org/portals/0/documents/whitepapers/lorawan101.pdf (accessed on 26 June 2016).
- SIGFOX Whitepaper. Available online: Https://lafibre.Info/images/3g/201302_sigfox_whitepaper.pdf (accessed on 12 May 2016).
- Weightless Wireless Communications. Available online: http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/wireless/weightless-m2m-white-space-wireless-communications/basics-overview.php (accessed on 26 September 2016).
- Sanchez-Iborra, R.; Cano, M.-D. State of the art in LP-Wan solutions for industrial IoT services. Sensors 2016, 16, 708–722. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Rapeepat, R.; Athul, P.; Zexian, L.; Amitava, G.; Uusitalo, M.A. In Recent advancements in M2M communications in 4G networks and evolution towards 5G. In Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Intelligence in Next Generation Networks: Innovations in Services, Networks and Clouds (ICIN 2015), Paris, France, 17–19 February 2015; pp. 52–57.
- Husain, S.; Prasad, A.; Kunz, A.; Papageorgiou, A.; Song, J. Recent trends in standards related to the internet of things and machine-to-machine communications. J. lnf. Commun. Converg. Eng. 2014, 12, 228–236. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Astely, D.; Dahlman, E.; Fodor, G.; Parkvall, S.; Sachs, J. LTE release 12 and beyond [accepted from open call]. IEEE Commun. Mag. 2013, 51, 154–160. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Palattella, M.R.; Dohler, M.; Grieco, A.; Rizzo, G.; Torsner, J.; Engel, T.; Ladid, L. Internet of things in the 5G era: Enablers, architecture, and business models. IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 2016, 34, 510–527. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bogale, T.E.; Le, L.B. Massive MIMO and mmwave for 5G wireless hetnet: Potential benefits and challenges. IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag. 2016, 11, 64–75. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ahson, S.A.; Ilyas, M. Near Field Communications Handbook; Auerbach Publications: New York, NY, USA, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Specifications & Application Documents-NFC Forum. Available online: http://nfc-forum.Org/our-work/specifications-and-application-documents/ (accessed on 26 May 2016).
- Coskun, V.; Ok, K.; Ozdenizci, B. Near Field Communication: From Theory to Practice; John Wiley & Sons: New York, NY, USA, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Chang, H.-H.; Schulman, J. Everyday NFC: Near Field Communication Explained; Incorporated: Seattle, WA, USA, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Hendry, M. Near Field Communications: Technology and Applications; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- NFC Forum Technical Specifications-NFC Forum. Available online: http://nfc-forum.Org/our-work/specifications-and-application-documents/specifications/nfc-forum-technical-specifications/ (accessed on 5 May 2016).
- Type 1 Tag Operation Specification. Available online: http://apps4android.org/nfc-specifications/NFCForum-TS-Type-1-Tag_1.1.pdf (accessed on 29 May 2016).
- Type 2 Tag Operation Specification. Available online: http://apps4android.org/nfc-specifications/NFCForum-TS-Type-2-Tag_1.1.pdf (accessed on 21 June 2016).
- Type 3 Tag Operation Specification. Available online: http://apps4android.org/nfc-specifications/NFCForum-TS-Type-3-Tag_1.1.pdf (accessed on 6 June 2016).
- Type 4 Tag Operation Specification. Available online: http://apps4android.org/nfc-specifications/NFCForum-TS-Type-4-Tag_2.0.pdf (accessed on 4 June 2016).
- NFC Tag Type 5 Specification. Available online: http://open-nfc.Org/documents/sts_nfc_0707-001%20nfc%20tag%20type%205%20specification.Pdf (accessed on 7 June 2016).
- NFC Tag Type 6 Specification. Available online: http://open-nfc.org/documents/STS_NFC_0707-001%20NFC%20Tag%20Type%205%20Specification.pdf (accessed on 8 June 2016).
- NXP NFC Tag IC NTAG I2C. Available online: http://cache.Nxp.Com/documents/leaflet/75017479.Pdf?Fpsp=1&wt_type=brochures&wt_vendor=freescale&wt_file_format=pdf&wt_asset=documentation&fileext=.Pdf (accessed on 10 June 2016).
- I2C Bus Specification and User Manual. Available online: http://cache.Nxp.Com/documents/user_manual/um10204.Pdf?Fpsp=1&wt_type=usersguides&wt_vendor=freescale&wt_file_format=pdf&wt_asset=documentation&fileext=.Pdf (accessed on 6 June 2016).
- NFC Forum Type 2 Tag Compliant IC. Available online: http://www.Nxp.Com/documents/data_sheet/ntag213f_216f.Pdf (accessed on 23 January 2016).
- NFC for Embedded Applications. Available online: http://cache.Nxp.Com/documents/brochure/75017587.Pdf?Fpsp=1&wt_type=brochures&wt_vendor=freescale&wt_file_format=pdf&wt_asset=documentation&fileext=.Pdf (accessed on 2 June 2016).
- Thin Film NFC Barcode. Available online: http://www.thinfilm.no/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Thinfilm_Kovio_NFC_Barcode_Tag_Functional_Specification_v3_1a_2015-10-08.pdf (accessed on 16 May 2016).
- NFC Phones: The Definitive List. Available online: http://www.nfcworld.com/nfc-phones-list/ (accessed on 3 June 2016).
- GoToTags-Interact with Things-NFC, Barcode, QR, BLE, IoT. Available online: https://gototags.com/ (accessed on 23 September 2016).
- Sony Global-FeliCa-SDK for NFC-FeliCa-ICS-D010, ICS-D004, ICS-D002, ICS-D003. Available online: http://www.Sony.Net/products/felica/business/products/ics-d004_002_003.Html (accessed on 25 September 2016).
- The Open NFC Project|The Reference Open Source NFC Software Stack. Available online: http://open-nfc.Org/wp/ (accessed on 29 September 2016).
- NFC-Tools. Available online: http://nfc-tools.Org/index.Php?Title=libnfc (accessed on 25 September 2016).
- android.nfc. Available online: https://developer.android.com/reference/android/nfc/package-summary.html (accessed on 3 September 2016).
- MIFARE SDK Advanced. Available online: https://www.mifare.net/es/productos/tools/mifare-sdk-advanced/ (accessed on 7 September 2016).
- NFC Reader Library|NXP. Available online: http://www.nxp.com/products/identification-and-security/nfc-and-reader-ics/nfc-controller-solutions/nfc-reader-library-software-support-for-nfc-frontend-solutions:NFC-READER-LIBRARY (accessed on 26 September 2016).
- Madureira, A. Factors that hinder the success of sim-based mobile NFC service deployments. Telemat. Inform. 2017, 34, 133–150. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Alattar, M.; Achemlal, M. Host-based card emulation: Development, security, and ecosystem impact analysis. In Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC), Paris, France, 20–22 August 2014; pp. 506–509.
- MasterCard & Contactless|Global. Available online: http://www.Mastercard.Com/contactless/ (accessed on 28 May 2016).
- Visa|The Future Of Payments. Available online: https://www.visa.com.au/visa-everywhere/future-of-payments.html (accessed on 6 June 2016).
- Shen, C.-W.; Wu, Y.-C.J.; Lee, T.-C. Developing a NFC-equipped smart classroom: Effects on attitudes toward computer science. Comput. Hum. Behav. 2014, 30, 731–738. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Borrego-Jaraba, F.; García, G.C.; Ruiz, I.L.; Gómez-Nieto, M.Á. An NFC based context-aware solution for access to bibliographic sources in university environments. J. Ambient Intell. Smart Environ. 2013, 5, 105–118. [Google Scholar]
- Egger, R. The impact of near field communication on tourism. J. Hosp. Tour. Technol. 2013, 4, 119–133. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Yiu, N.C.K. An NFC-Enabled Anticounterfeiting System for Wine Industry. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China, 2 May 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Rfid for Brand Protection. Available online: http://www.Nxp.Com/documents/leaflet/75017595.pdf (accessed on 21 May 2016).
- DeHennis, A.; Getzlaff, S.; Grice, D.; Mailand, M. An NFC-enabled CMOS IC for a wireless fully implantable glucose sensor. IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 2016, 20, 18–28. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- NFC in Public Transport. Available online: http://nfc-forum.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/NFC-in-Public-Transport.pdf (accessed on 3 June 2016).
- Transport and Ticketing. Available online: http://www.Gemalto.Com/transport/mobile-nfc#solutions (accessed on 8 June 2016).
- Mainetti, L.; Mele, F.; Patrono, L.; Simone, F.; Stefanizzi, M.L.; Vergallo, R. The impact of RF technologies and EPC standard on the fresh vegetables supply chain. Int. J. RF Technol. 2013, 5, 1–40. [Google Scholar]
- Alshehri, A.; Schneider, S. A formal framework for security analysis of NFC mobile coupon protocols. J. Comput. Secur. 2015, 23, 685–707. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Diez, F.P.; Touceda, D.S.; Cámara, J.M.S.; Zeadally, S. Toward self-authenticable wearable devices. IEEE Wirel. Commun. 2015, 22, 36–43. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- IBeacon for Developers-Apple Developer. Available online: https://developer.Apple.Com/ibeacon/ (accessed on 4 February 2016).
- Bluetooth Core Specification|Bluetooth Technology Website. Available online: https://www.bluetooth.com/specifications/bluetooth-core-specification (accessed on 9 June 2016).
- Adopted Specifications|Bluetooth Technology Website. Available online: https://www.Bluetooth.Com/specifications/adopted-specifications (accessed on 20 May 2016).
- GitHub-AltBeacon/spec: AltBeacon Technical Specification. Available online: https://github.Com/altbeacon/spec (accessed on 10 June 2016).
- GitHub-google/uribeacon: The Web Uri Open Beacon for the Internet of Things. Available online: https://github.Com/google/uribeacon (accessed on 5 June 2016).
- GitHub-google/eddystone: Specification for Eddystone, an Open Beacon Format from Google. Available online: https://github.Com/google/eddystone (accessed on 24 February 2016).
- Eddystone Ephemeral Identifier|Beacons|Google Developers. Available online: https://developers.Google.Com/beacons/eddystone-eid (accessed on 23 January 2016).
- Misra, P.; Raza, S.; Rajaraman, V.; Warrior, J.; Voigt, T. Security challenges in indoor location sensing using bluetooth LE broadcast. In Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Wireless Sensor Networks, Porto, Portugal, 9–11 February 2015; pp. 11–12.
- Schulz, T.; Golatowski, F.; Timmermann, D. Secure privacy preserving information beacons for public transportation systems. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communication Workshops (PerCom Workshops), Sydney, Australia, 14–18 March 2016; pp. 1–6.
- Faragher, R.; Harle, R. An analysis of the accuracy of bluetooth low energy for indoor positioning applications. In Proceedings of the 27th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS 14), Tampa, FL, USA, 8–12 September 2014; pp. 1–9.
- Faragher, R.; Harle, R. Location fingerprinting with bluetooth low energy beacons. IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 2015, 33, 2418–2428. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Zhuang, Y.; Yang, J.; Li, Y.; Qi, L.; El-Sheimy, N. Smartphone-based indoor localization with bluetooth low energy beacons. Sensors 2016, 16, 1–20. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Integration of Pedestrian DR and Beacon-AP Based Location System for Indoor Navigation. Available online: http://ignss.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=p%2BiDjFuLf2o%3D&tabid=130&mid=527 (accessed on 12 May 2016).
- Chiang, K.W.; Liao, J.K.; Tsai, G.J.; Chang, H.W. The performance analysis of the map-aided fuzzy decision tree based on the pedestrian dead reckoning algorithm in an indoor environment. Sensors 2015, 15, 1–21. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Kriz, P.; Maly, F.; Kozel, T. Improving indoor localization using bluetooth low energy beacons. Mob. Inform. Syst. 2016, 2016, 2083094. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cheng, R.S.; Hong, W.J.; Wang, J.S.; Lin, K.W. Seamless guidance system combining GPS, BLE beacon, and NFC technologies. Mob. Inform. Syst. 2016, 2016, 5032365. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Jergefelt, M. An internet of pings: Enhancing the web user experience of physically present patrons with bluetooth beacons, weave. J. Libr. User Exp. 2015, 1, 1–14. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- The Physical Web. Available online: http://google.Github.Io/physical-web/ (accessed on 16 June 2016).
- Daradkeh, Y.I.; Namiot, D. Network proximity and physical web. Math. Comput. Sci. Ind. 2015, 1, 170–175. [Google Scholar]
- On Physical Web Models. Available online: http://arxiv.Org/abs/1602.00841 (accessed on 12 June 2016).
- Bello-Ogunu, E.; Shehab, M. Crowdsourcing for context: Regarding privacy in beacon encounters via contextual integrity. Priv. Enhanc. Technol. 2016, 2016, 83–95. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Yoon, S.; Kim, H. Research into the personalized digital signage display contents information through a short distance indoor positioning. Int. J. Smart Home 2015, 9, 171–178. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- He, Z.; Cui, B.; Zhou, W.; Yokoi, S. A proposal of interaction system between visitor and collection in museum hall by ibeacon. In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Science & Education (ICCSE), Cambridge, UK, 22–24 July 2015; pp. 427–430.
- Ito, A.; Hiramatsu, Y.; Hatano, H.; Sato, M.; Fujii, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Sato, F.; Sasaki, A. Navigation system for sightseeing using BLE beacons in a historic area. In Proceedings of the IEEE 14th International Symposium on Applied Machine Intelligence and Informatics (SAMI), Herlany, Slovakia, 21–23 January 2016; pp. 171–176.
- Moysan, Y.; Paparoidamis, N. Can beacons be a source of inspiration for banks to increase sales and improve customer experience? J. Dig. Bank. 2016, 1, 53–61. [Google Scholar]
- Allurwar, N.; Nawale, B.; Patel, S. Beacon for proximity target marketing. Int. J. Eng. Comput. Sci. 2016, 15, 16359–16364. [Google Scholar]
- Sturari, M.; Liciotti, D.; Pierdicca, R.; Frontoni, E.; Mancini, A.; Contigiani, M.; Zingaretti, P. Robust and affordable retail customer profiling by vision and radio beacon sensor fusion. Pattern Recognit. Lett. 2016, 81, 30–40. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Paypal Launches Beacon, “Hands Free” in-Store Payments Hardware. Available online: http://www.paymentssource.com/news/paypal-launches-beacon-hands-free-in-store-payments-hardware (accessed on 2 June 2016).
- Kumaresan, G.; Gokulnath, J. Beacon based vehicle tracking and vehicle monitoring system. Technology 2016, 5, 1123–1127. [Google Scholar]
- Korial, A.E.; Abdullah, M.N. Novel method using beacon and smart phone for visually impaired/blind people. Int. J. Comput. Appl. 2016, 1, 33–39. [Google Scholar]
- Visible Light Communication Consortium. Available online: http://www.vlcc.net/?Ml_lang=en&ml_lang=en (accessed on 3 June 2016).
- IEEE 802.15.7 Task Group. Available online: http://www.ieee802.org/15/pub/TG7.html (accessed on 4 January 2016).
- Li-Fi Consortium. Available online: http://www.Lificonsortium.Org/index.html (accessed on 6 January 2016).
- Ndjiongue, A.R.; Ferreira, H.C.; Ngatched, T.M.N. Visible Light Communications (VLC) Technology. In Wiley Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering; Wiley: New York, NY, USA, 2015; pp. 1–15. [Google Scholar]
- Karunatilaka, D.; Zafar, F.; Kalavally, V.; Parthiban, R. Led based indoor visible light communications: State of the art. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor. 2015, 17, 1649–1678. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Li, H.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, X.; Wu, C.; Guo, J.; Gao, Z.; Pei, W.; Chen, H. 682 Mbit/s phosphorescent white led visible light communications utilizing analog equalized 16QAM-OFDM modulation without blue filter. Opt. Commun. 2015, 354, 107–111. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kumar, N.; Lourenco, N. Led based visible light communication: A brief survey and investigation. J. Eng. Appl. Sci. 2010, 5, 296–307. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- George, J.; Mustafa, M.; Osman, N.; Ahmed, N.; Hamed, D. A survey on visible light communication. Int. J. Eng. Comput. Sci. 2014, 3, 3805–3808. [Google Scholar]
- Yilmaz, T.C.A.S. An overview of visible light communication system. Int. J. Comput. Netw. Commun. 2015, 7, 139–150. [Google Scholar]
- Ma, H.; Lampe, L.; Hranilovic, S. Integration of indoor visible light and power line communication systems. In Proceedings of the 2013 17th IEEE International Symposium on Power Line Communications and Its Applications (ISPLC), Johannesburg, South Africa, 24–27 March 2013; pp. 291–296.
- Kavehrad, M. Sustainable energy-efficient wireless applications using light. IEEE Commun. Mag. 2010, 48, 66–73. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Luo, M.R.; Fan, Z.; Qiyan, Z.; Xiaoyu, L.; Binyu, W. The impact of led on human visual experience. In Proceedings of the 2013 10th China International Forum on Solid State Lighting (ChinaSSL), Beijing, China, 10–12 November 2013; pp. 280–283.
- Katsuura, T.; Ochiai, Y.; Senoo, T.; Lee, S.; Takahashi, Y.; Shimomura, Y. Effects of blue pulsed light on human physiological functions and subjective evaluation. J. Physiol. Anthropol. 2012, 31, 1–5. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Hussein, A.T.; Alresheedi, M.T.; Elmirghani, J.M.H. 20 Gb/s mobile indoor visible light communication system employing beam steering and computer generated holograms. J. Lightw. Technol. 2015, 33, 5242–5260. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fath, T.; Haas, H. Performance comparison of mimo techniques for optical wireless communications in indoor environments. IEEE Trans. Commun. 2013, 6, 733–742. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dhatchayeny, D.R.; Sewaiwar, A.; Tiwari, S.V.; Chung, Y.H. Experimental biomedical EEG signal transmission using VLC. IEEE Sens. J. 2015, 15, 5386–5387. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cahyadi, W.A.; Jeong, T.-I.; Kim, Y.-H.; Chung, Y.-H.; Adiono, T. Patient monitoring using visible light uplink data transmission. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Intelligent Signal Processing and Communication Systems (ISPACS), Nusa Dua Bali, Indonesia, 9–12 November 2015; pp. 431–434.
- Sewaiwar, A.; Tiwari, S.V.; Chung, Y.-H. Visible light communication based motion detection. Opt. Express 2015, 23, 18769–18776. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Lim, S.; Ruling, K.; Kim, I.; Jang, I. Entertainment lighting control network standardization to support VLC services. IEEE Commun. Mag. 2013, 51, 42–48. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Panta, K.; Armstrong, J. Indoor localisation using white leds. Electron. Lett. 2012, 48, 228–230. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Biagi, M.; Pergoloni, S.; Vegni, A.M. Last: A framework to localize, access, schedule and transmit in indoor VLC systems. J. Lightw. Technol. 2015, 33, 1872–1887. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Yamazato, T.; Takai, I.; Okada, H.; Fujii, T.; Yendo, T.; Arai, S.; Andoh, M.; Harada, T.; Yasutomi, K.; Kagawa, K.; et al. Image-sensor-based visible light communication for automotive applications. IEEE Commun. Mag. 2014, 52, 88–97. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cailean, A.; Dimian, M. Toward environmental-adaptive visible light communications receivers for automotive applications: A review. Sensors 2016, 16, 2803–2811. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Takai, I.; Harada, T.; Andoh, M.; Yasutomi, K.; Kagawa, K.; Kawahito, S. Optical vehicle-to-vehicle communication system using LED transmitter and camera receiver. IEEE Photonics J. 2016, 6. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Uema, H.; Matsumura, T.; Saito, S.; Murata, Y. Research and development on underwater visible light communication systems. Electron. Commun. Jpn. 2015, 98, 9–13. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Medina, C.; Zambrano, M.; Navarro, K. Led based visible light communication: Technology, applications and challenges—A survey. Int. J. Adv. Eng. Technol. 2015, 1, 482–495. [Google Scholar]
- Schmid, S.; Bourchas, T.; Mangold, S.; Gross, T.R. Linux light bulbs: Enabling internet protocol connectivity for light bulb networks. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Visible Light Communications Systems, Paris, France, 7–11 September 2015; pp. 3–8.
- Wang, Q.; Giustiniano, D.; Gnawali, O. Low-cost, flexible and open platform for visible light communication networks. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Hot Topics in Wireless (HotWireless ’15), Paris, France, 7–11 September 2015; pp. 31–35.
- Tian, Z.; Campbell, A.T.; Zhou, X. Poster: Visible light communication in the dark. In Proceedings of the 21st Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, Paris, France, 7–11 September 2015; pp. 278–280.
- Grobe, L.; Paraskevopoulos, A.; Hilt, J.; Schultz, D.; Lassak, F.; Hartlieb, F.; Kottke, C.; Jungnickel, V.; Langer, K. High-speed visible light communication systems. IEEE Commun. Mag. 2013, 51, 60–66. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kil-Sung, P.; Sun-Hyung, K.; Young-Chang, K. Development of tranceiver using flashlight and camera in vlwc. Adv. Sci. Technol. Lett. 2014, 77, 23–32. [Google Scholar]
- Valisakis, M. Dynalight: A Dynamic Visible Light Communication Link for Smartphones. Master’s Thesis, Embedded Systems, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Lee, H.-Y.; Lin, H.-M.; Wei, Y.-L.; Wu, H.-I.; Tsai, H.-M.; Lin, K.C.-J. Rollinglight: Enabling line-of-sight light-to-camera communications. In Proceedings of the 13th Annual International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services, Florence, Italy, 18–22 May 2015; pp. 167–180.
- Panasonic Inc. Panasonic Showcases Visible Light ID Technology, Which Only Requires an App Installed Smartphone at CES2015. Available online: http://news.panasonic.com/global/stories/2015/32005.html (accessed on 20 February 2016).
- Casio Unveils Prototype of Visible Light Communication System Using Smartphones at CES. Available online: http://arch.casio.com/news/2012/0115_VisibleLightcomm/ (accessed on 3 May 2016).
- LiFi-X-The Fastest, Smallest and Most Secure LiFi System. Available online: http://purelifi.Com/lifi-products/lifi-x/ (accessed on 4 May 2016).
- ByteLight™ Services: Indoor Positioning. Available online: http://hydrel.acuitybrands.com/sitecore/content/acuitybrandscorporate/home/solutions/services/bytelight-services-indoor-positioning (accessed on 23 June 2016).
- Lightbee. Available online: http://lightbeecorp.Com/es/services/ (accessed on 7 May 2016).
- Axrtek. Available online: http://axrtek.Com/ (accessed on 7 May 2016).
- GitHub-jpiat/Arduino. Available online: https://github.Com/jpiat/arduino (accessed on 23 September 2016).
- Lumicast|Qualcomm. Available online: https://www.Qualcomm.Com/lumicast (accessed on 23 September 2016).
- LED Based Indoor Positioning System|Philips Lighting. Available online: http://www.Lighting.Philips.com/main/systems/themes/led-based-indoor-positioning.html (accessed on 23 September 2016).
- Openvlc. Available online: http://www.openvlc.org/ (accessed on 23 September 2016).
- European Smart Cities. Available online: http://www.smart-cities.eu/ (accessed on 21 June 2016).
- Kuk, G.; Janssen, M. The business models and information architectures of smart cities. J. Urban Technol. 2011, 18, 39–52. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Anthopoulos, L.; Fitsilis, P. Using classification and roadmapping techniques for Smart city viability’s realization. Electron. J. E-Gov. 2013, 11, 326–336. [Google Scholar]
- Lee, J.H.; Phaal, R.; Lee, S.-H. An integrated service-device-technology roadmap for Smart city development. Technol. Forecast. Soc. Chang. 2013, 80, 286–306. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kortuem, G.; Kawsar, F.; Sundramoorthy, V.; Fitton, D. Smart objects as building blocks for the internet of things. IEEE Internet Comput. 2010, 14, 44–51. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sahib, U. M-governance: Smartphone applications for smarter cities—Tapping GPS and NFC technologies. In E-Governance for Smart Cities Part III; Springer: Singapore, 2015; pp. 245–306. [Google Scholar]
- Bluetooth Beacons Signal Future Public Safety Apps and Advantages. Available online: https://gcn.com/articles/2014/01/15/bluetooth-beacons.aspx (accessed on June 2016).
- NFC Healthcare Solutions|Sistelnetworks. Available online: http://sistelnetworks.Com/nfc-healthcare-solutions/ (accessed on May 2016).
- SMART Tag. Available online: http://www.smart-tag.set/ (accessed on May 2016).
- Miranda, P.S.; Pastorelly, N. NFC Mobiquitous Information Service Prototyping at the University of Nice Sophia Antipolis and Multi-Mode NFC Application Proposal. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Near Field Communication, Hagenberg, Austria, 22 February 2011; pp. 3–8.
- Miraz, G.M.; Ruiz, I.L.; Gómez-Nieto, M.Á. How NFC can be used for the compliance of European higher education area guidelines in European Universities. In Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Near Field Communication, Hagenberg, Austria, 24–26 February 2009; pp. 3–8.
- Benyó, B.; Sódor, B.; Doktor, T.; Fördós, G. Student attendance monitoring at the university using NFC. In Proceedings of the Wireless Telecommunications Symposium (WTS 2012), London, United Kingdom, 18–20 April 2012; pp. 1–5.
- Tabuenca, B.; Kalz, M.; Specht, M. Tap it again, SAM: Harmonizing the frontiers between digital and real worlds in education. In Proceedings of the IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE), Madrid, Spain, 22–25 October 2014; pp. 1–9.
- Brassai, B.; Varga, B.; Simon, K.; Török-Vistai, T. Geoquesting: Mobile adventure game and web-based game editor. In Proceedings of the IEEE 12th International Symposium on Intelligent Systems and Informatics, Subotica, Servia, 11–13 September 2014; pp. 99–103.
- Garrido, P.C.; Miraz, G.M.; Ruiz, I.L.; Gómez-Nieto, M.Á. Use of NFC-based pervasive games for encouraging learning and student motivation. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Near Field Communication (NFC), Hagenberg, Austria, 22–23 February 2011; pp. 32–37.
- Noguchi, S.; Niibori, M.; Zhou, E.; Kamada, M. Student attendance management system with bluetooth low energy beacon and android devices. In Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Network-Based Information Systems (NBiS), Taipei, Taiwan, 2–4 September 2015; pp. 710–713.
- Merode, D.V.; Tabunshchyk, G.; Patrakhalko, K.; Yuriy, G. Flexible technologies for smart campus. In Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Remote Engineering and Virtual Instrumentation, Madrid, Spain, 24–26 February 2016; pp. 64–68.
- Bae, M.-Y.; Cho, D.-J. Design and implementation of automatic attendance check system using BLE beacon. Int. J. Multimed. Ubiquitous Eng. 2015, 10, 177–186. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Healthcare/Applications/Home-Ultra Low Power Wireless Solutions from NORDIC SEMICONDUCTOR. Available online: https://www.nordicsemi.com/eng/applications/healthcare (accessed on 4 June 2016).
- Cecil, S.; Bammer, M.; Ove, G.S.; Ove, K.L.; Oberleitner, A. Smart NFC-sensors for healthcare applications and further development trends. Elektrotechnik Informationstechnik 2013, 130, 191–200. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Contract Manufacturing|Automated Assembly Corporation Automated Assembly Corporation. Available online: http://www.autoassembly.com/ (accessed on 2 January 2016).
- Lam, K.-Y.; Tsang, N.W.-H.; Han, S.; Zhang, W.; Ng, J.K.-Y.; Nath, A. Activity tracking and monitoring of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Multimed. Tools Appl. 2015, 1–33. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Beer, R.D.; Keijers, R.; Shahid, S.; Mahmud, A.A.; Mubin, O. PMD: Designing a portable medicine dispenser for persons suffering from Alzheimer’s disease. Comput. Help. People Spec. Needs 2010, 6179, 332–335. [Google Scholar]
- Garrido, P.C.; Ruiz, I.L.; Gómez-Nieto, M.Á. Support for visually impaired through mobile and NFC technology. IT Revolut. 2011, 82, 116–126. [Google Scholar]
- Nicklaus Children’s Hospital Uses NFC Tags, BLE Beacons to Manage Inspections. Available online: http://www.rfidjournal.com/articles/view?14394 (accessed on 3 January 2016).
- Contactless Intelligence|Contactless Britannia Charity Roundtable 2016. Available online: https://contactlessintelligence.com/contactless-britannia-charity-roundtable-2016/ (accessed on 12 May 2016).
- RFID, RTLS and NFC in Healthcare. Available online: http://www.Pique.ch/uploads/8/6/7/5/8675709/whitepaper_rfid_in_healthcare.pdf (accessed on 3 May 2016).
- Veridify-SecureRF. Available online: http://www.securerf.com/products/veridify/ (accessed on 10 May 2016).
- Kadir, E.A.; Shamsuddin, S.M.; Rahim, S.K.A.; Rosa, S.L.; Teknik, F. Application of NFC technology for premise halal certification. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Information and Communication Technology (ICoICT), Denpasar, Indonesia, 27–29 May 2015 ; pp. 618–621.
- JAKIM launches ‘Halal Square’ and ‘Halal Inside’ Apps. Available online: http://halalfocus.net/malaysia-jakim-launches-halal-square-and-halal-inside-apps/ (accessed on 23 May 2016).
- Use iBeacon Technology to Track Women Via Apps. Available online: https://challenges.openideo.com/challenge/womens-safety/ideas/use-ibeacon-technology-to-track-women-via-apps (accessed on 10 February 2016).
- Swedish Supermarket Uses NFC Price Tags to Promote Deals and Discounts-NFC World. Available online: http://www.nfcworld.com/2015/12/08/340427/swedish-supermarket-uses-nfc-price-labels-to-send-out-promotions/ (accessed on 3 January 2016).
- Clear Channel UK|Connect Mobile Platform. Available online: http://www.clearchannel.co.uk/our-products/connect-mobile-platform (accessed on 10 May 2016).
- Borrego-Jaraba, F.; Ruiz, I.L.; Gómez-Nieto, M.Á. NFC solution for the development of smart scenarios supporting tourism applications and surfing in urban environments. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial, Engineering and Other Applications of Applied Intelligent Systems, Cordoba, Spain, 1–4 June 2010; pp. 229–238.
- Borrego-Jaraba, F.; Ruiz, I.L.; Gómez-Nieto, M.Á. A NFC-based pervasive solution for city touristic surfing, personal and ubiquitous computing. Pers. Ubiquitous Comput. 2011, 15, 731–742. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Borrego-Jaraba, F.; Garrido, P.C.; García, G.C.; Ruiz, I.L.; Gómez-Nieto, M.Á. A ubiquitous NFC solution for the development of tailored marketing strategies based on discount vouchers and loyalty cards. Sensors 2013, 13, 6334–6354. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- VLC Technology for Mainau Island–Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute. Available online: http://www.hhi.fraunhofer.de/en/departments/photonic-networks-and-systems/projects/vlc-technology-for-mainau-island.html (accessed on 2 May 2016).
- Yu, M.; Zhang, D.; Cheng, Y.; Wang, M. An RFID electronic tag based automatic vehicle identification system for traffic IoT applications. In Proceedings of the Chinese Control and Decision Conference (CCDC), Mianyang, China, 23–25 May 2011; pp. 4192–4197.
- 7 Amazing Transit Based Mobile Payment Systems Not to be Left Unnoticed|Let´s Talk Payments. Available online: https://letstalkpayments.com/7-amazing-transport-based-mobile-payment-systems-not-to-be-left-unnoticed/ (accessed on 1 December 2015).
- London Buses to be Equipped with Bluetooth Beacon Technology-Business Reporter. Available online: http://staging.business-reporter.co.Uk/2015/07/02/london-buses-to-be-equipped-with-bluetooth-beacon-technology/ (accessed on 10 January 2016).
- Sawant, H.; Tan, J.; Yang, Q.; Wang, Q. Using bluetooth and sensor networks for intelligent transportation systems. In Proceedings of the 7th International IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Washington, DC, USA, 3–6 October 2004; pp. 767–772.
- Lin, J.-R.; Talty, T.; Tonguz, O.K. On the potential of bluetooth low energy technology for vehicular applications. IEEE Commun. Mag. 2015, 53, 267–275. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Volam, P.K.; Kamath, A.R.; Bagi, S.S. A system and method for transmission of traffic sign board information to vehicles and relevance determination. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Electronics, Computers and Communications (ICAECC), Bangalore, India, 10–11 October 2014; pp. 1–6.
- Kim, Y.H.; Cahyadi, W.A.; Chung, Y.H. Experimental demonstration of VLC-based vehicle-to-vehicle communications under fog conditions. IEEE Photonics J. 2015, 7, 7905309. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Yoo, J.-H.; Lee, R.; Oh, J.-K.; Seo, H.-W.; Kim, J.-Y.; Kim, H.-C.; Jung, S.-Y. Demonstration of vehicular visible light communication based on led headlamp. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Ubiquitous and Future Networks (ICUFN), Da Nang, Vietnam, 2–5 July 2013; pp. 465–467.
- Abualhoul, M.Y.; Marouf, M.; Shagdar, O.; Nashashibi, F. Platooning control using visible light communications: A feasibility study. In Proceedings of the 16th International IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC 2013), The Hague, The Netherlands, 6–9 October 2013; pp. 1535–1540.
- Yu, S.-H.; Shih, O.; Tsai, H.-M. Smart automotive lighting for vehicle safety, on visible light communication: The road to standarization and commercialization. IEEE Commun. Mag. 2013, 51, 50–59. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Okada, H.; Ishizaki, T.; Yamazato, T.; Yendo, T.; Fujii, T. Erasure coding for road-to-vehicle visible light communication systems. In Proceedings of the IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference (CCNC 2011), Piscataway, NJ, USA, 9–12 January 2011; p. 75.
- Kim, N.; Jing, C.; Zhou, B.; Kim, Y. Smart parking information system exploiting visible light communication. Int. J. Smart Home 2014, 8, 251–260. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Watch the Swiss Use Swatch with OT to Make Contactless Payments|Contactless Intelligence. Available online: https://contactlessintelligence.com/2016/06/17/watch-the-swiss-use-swatch-with-ot-to-make-contactless-payments (accessed on 10 May 2016).
- Bluetooth Beacons Could Be Just the Ticket for UK Rail Passengers-NFC World. Available online: http://www.nfcworld.com/2015/02/09/334002/bluetooth-beacons-just-ticket-uk-rail-passengers/ (accessed on 14 January 2016).
- Narzt, W.; Mayerhofer, S.; Weichselbaum, O.; Haselböck, S.; Höfler, N. Be-in/be-out with bluetooth low energy: Implicit ticketing for public transportation systems. In Proceedings of the IEEE 18th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Canary Islands, Spain, 15–18 September 2015; pp. 1551–1556.
- Moreno-Munoz, A.; Bellido-Outeirino, F.J.; Siano, P.; Gomez-Nieto, M.A. Mobile social media for smart grids customer engagement: Emerging trends and challenges. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2016, 53, 1611–1616. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Yang, T.; Xiang, W.; Ye, L. A distributed agents QoS routing algorithm to transmit electrical power measuring information in last mile access wireless sensor networks. Int. J. Distrib. Sens. Netw. 2013, 4, 1–8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Karduri, M.; Cox, M.D.; Champagne, N.J. Near-field coupling between broadband over power line (BPL) and high-frequency communication systems. IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 2006, 21, 1885–1891. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Courreges, S.; Oudji, S.; Meghdadi, V.; Brauers, C.; Kays, R. Performance and interoperability evaluation of radiofrequency home automation protocols and bluetooth low energy for smart grid and smart home applications. In Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE), Las Vegas, NV, USA, 7–11 January 2016; pp. 391–392.
- Silver Spring Networks Unveils its First Street Lighting Network-as-a-Service Deployment for North American Market, Expands Smart City Partner Ecosystem-Silver Spring Networks. Available online: http://www.silverspringnet.com/article/silver-spring-networks-unveils-its-first-street-lighting-network-as-a-service-deployment-for-north-american-market-expands-smart-city-partner-ecosystem/#.vupmnvlvhbc (accessed on 3 May 2016).
- Szili, T.; Matolcsy, B.; Fekete, G. Water pollution investigations by underwater visible light communications. In Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Budapest, Hungary, 5–9 July 2015; pp. 1–4.
- Tiwari, S.V.; Sewaiwar, A.; Chung, Y.-H. Smart home technologies using visible light communication. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE), Las Vegas, NV, USA, 9–12 January 2015; pp. 379–380.
- Tiwari, S.V.; Sewaiwar, A.; Chung, Y.-H. Smart home multi-device bidirectional visible light communication. Photonic Netw. Commun. 2016, 1, 1–8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kumar, A.; Mihovska, A.; Kyriazakos, S.; Prasad, R. Visible light communications (VLC) for ambient assisted living. Wirel. Pers. Commun. 2014, 78, 1699–1717. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Light is Our Passion-Your Product, Our Drive|eldoLED. Available online: https://www.Eldoled.Com/ (accessed on 4 May 2016).
- Smart Cities Council|News. Available online: http://smartcitiescouncil.Com/members/badger-meter (accessed on 2 May 2016).
- Bakıcı, T.; Almirall, E.; Wareham, J. A Smart city initiative: The case of barcelona. J. Knowl. Econ. 2013, 4, 135–148. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Zygiaris, S. Smart city reference model: Assisting planners to conceptualize the building of Smart city innovation ecosystems. J. Knowl. Econ. 2013, 4, 217–231. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- IoT (Internet of Things) for Residential Customers Navigant Research. Available online: http://www.navigantresearch.com/research/iot-internet-of-things-for-residential-customers (accessed on 10 May 2016).
- Smart Home. Intelligent Living|SmartThings. Available online: https://www.smartthings.com/ (accessed on 2 May 2016).
- Su, K.; Li, J.; Fu, H. Smart city and the applications. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Electronics, Communications and Control (ICECC), Ningbo, China, 9–11 September 2011; pp. 1028–1031.
- Zakaria, B.N.; Shamsi, J.A. Smart city architecture: Vision and challenges. Int. J. Adv. Comput. Sci. Appl. 2015, 6, 246–255. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Harrison, C.; Eckman, B.; Hamilton, R.; Hartswick, P.; Kalagnanam, J.; Paraszczak, J.; Williams, P. Foundations for smarter cities. IBM J. Res. Dev. 2010, 54, 1–16. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Tsai, C.W.; Lai, C.F.; Chiang, M.C.; Yang, L.T. Data mining for internet of things: A survey. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor. 2014, 16, 77–97. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Berkovich, S.; Liao, D. On clusterization of big data streams. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Computing for Geospatial Research and Applications, Reston, VA, USA, 1–3 July 2012; pp. 21–26.
- Baraniuk, R.G. More is less: Signal processing and the data deluge. Science 2011, 331, 717–719. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Madden, S. From databases to big data. IEEE Internet Comput. 2012, 16, 4–6. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- The Power of Big Data in Europe. Available online: https://www.neweurope.eu/article/power-big-data-europe/ (accessed on 20 June 2016).
- Zikopoulos, P.C.; Eaton, C.; DeRoos, D.; Deutsch, T.; Lapis, G. Understanding Big Data; McGraw-Hill: New York, NY, USA, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Ali, N.A.; Abu-Elkheir, M. Data management for the internet of things: Green directions. In Proceedings of the IEEE Globecom Workshops, Anaheim, CA, USA, 3–7 December 2012; pp. 386–390.
- Xu, R.; Wunsch, D. Survey of clustering algorithms. IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 2005, 16, 645–678. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Ng, R.T.; Han, J. Clarans: A method for clustering objects for spatial data mining. IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 2002, 14, 1003–1016. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Zhang, T.; Ramakrishnan, R.; Livny, M. Birch: An efficient data clustering method for very large databases. In Proceedings of the 1996 ACM SIGMOD international conference on Management of Data, Montreal, QC, Canada, 4–6 June 1996; pp. 103–114.
- Levitin, A.; Mukherjee, S. Introduction to the Design & Analysis of Algorithms; Addison-Wesley: Reading, MA, USA, 2003. [Google Scholar]
- Ross, D.A.; Lim, J.; Lin, R.S.; Yang, M.H. Incremental learning for robust visual tracking. Int. J. Comput. Vis. 2008, 77, 125–141. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kira, K.; Rendell, L.A. The feature selection problem: Traditional methods and a new algorithm. In Proceedings of the 10th National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, San Jose, CA, USA, 12–16 July 1992; pp. 129–134.
- Saeys, Y.; Inza, I.; Larrañaga, P. A review of feature selection techniques in bioinformatics. Bioinformatics 2007, 23, 2507–2517. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Improving Semi-Supervised Support Vector Machines through Unlabeled Instances Selection. Available online: http://arxiv.org/abs/1005.1545 (accessed on 4 September 2016).
- Borges, C.E.; Penya, Y.K.; Fernandez, I. Evaluating combined load forecasting in large power systems and smart grids. IEEE Trans. Ind. Inform. 2013, 9, 1570–1577. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gang, P.; Guande, Q.; Wangsheng, Z.; Shijian, L.; Zhaohui, W. Smart cities, trace analysis and mining for smart cities: Issues, methods, and applications. IEEE Commun. Mag. 2013, 121, 120–126. [Google Scholar]
- Simonov, M.; Mussetta, M.; Pirisi, A.; Grimaccia, F.; Caputo, D.; Zich, R.E. Real time energy management in smart cities by future internet. In Future Internet Assembly; IOS Press: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2010; pp. 173–182. [Google Scholar]
- Herrera, M.; Izquierdo, J.; Pérez-Garćıa, R.; Ayala-Cabrera, D. On-line learning of predictive kernel models for urban water demand in a Smart city. Procedia Eng. 2014, 70, 791–799. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Campisi-Pinto, S.; Adamowski, J.; Oron, G. Forecasting urban water demand via wavelet-denoising and neural network models. Case study: City of Syracuse, Italy. Water Resour. Manag. 2012, 26, 3539–3558. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Tu, J. Spatially varying relationships between land use and water quality across an urbanization gradient explored by geographically weighted regression. Appl. Geogr. 2011, 31, 376–392. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Marsal-Llacuna, M.L.; Colomer-Llinàs, J.; Meléndez-Frigola, J. Lessons in urban monitoring taken from sustainable and livable cities to better address the smart cities initiative. Technol. Forecast. Soc. Chang. 2015, 90, 611–622. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Liebig, T.; Piatkowski, N.; Bockermann, C.; Morik, K. Predictive trip planning-smart routing in smart cities. In Proceedings of the EDBT/ICDT Workshops, Athens, Greece, 14–28 March 2014; pp. 331–338.
- Zheng, Y.; Rajasegarar, S.; Leckie, C. Parking availability prediction for sensor-enabled car parks in smart cities. In Proceedings of the IEEE Tenth International Conference on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing (ISSNIP), Singapore, 7–9 April 2015; pp. 1–6.
- Abbasi, A.A.; Younis, M. A survey on clustering algorithms for wireless sensor networks. Comput. Commun. 2007, 30, 2826–2841. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ghiasi, S.; Srivastava, A.; Yang, X.; Sarrafzadeh, M. Optimal energy aware clustering in sensor networks. Sensors 2002, 2, 258–269. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Heinzelman, W.B.; Chandrakasan, A.P.; Balakrishnan, H. An application-specific protocol architecture for wireless microsensor networks. IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. 2002, 1, 660–670. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rao, S.P.; Cook, D.J. Predicting inhabitant action using action and task models with application to smart homes. Int. J. Artif. Intell. Tools 2004, 13, 81–99. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chen, H.; Cheng, B.C.; Cheng, C.C.; Tsai, L.K. Smart home sensor networks pose goal-driven solutions to wireless vacuum systems. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Hybrid Information Technology, Cheju Island, Korea, 9–11 November 2006; pp. 364–373.
- Schuster, E.W.; Kumar, S.; Sarma, S.E.; Willers, J.L.; Milliken, G.A. Infrastructure for data-driven agriculture: Identifying management zones for cotton using statistical modeling and machine learning techniques. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Emerging Technologies for a Smarter World (CEWIT), Hauppauge, NY, USA, 2–3 November 2011; pp. 1–11.
- Min, Z.; Bei, W.; Chunyuan, G. Application study of precision agriculture based on ontology in the internet of things environment. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Applied Informatics and Communication, Xi’an, China, 20–21 August 2011; pp. 374–380.
- White, S.; Smyth, P. A spectral clustering approach to finding communities in graphs. In Proceedings of the 2005 SIAM International Conference on Data Mining, Newport Beach, CA, USA, 21–23 April 2005; pp. 274–285.
- An, G.J.; Zhang, W.; Jiang, J. Nodes social relations cognition for mobility-aware in the internet of things. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Internet of Things and Cyber, Physical and Social Computing, Dalian, China, 19–22 October 2011; pp. 687–691.
- Fleury, A.; Vacher, M.; Noury, N. SVM-based multimodal classification of activities of daily living in health smart homes: Sensors, algorithms, and first experimental results. IEEE Trans. Inform. Technol. Biomed. 2010, 14, 274–283. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Fleury, A.; Noury, N.; Vacher, M. Supervised classification of activities of daily living in health smart homes using SVM. In Proceedings of the 2009 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC 2009), Minneapolis, France, 3–6 September 2009; pp. 6099–6102.
- Nguyen, Q.C.; Shin, D.; Shin, D.; Kim, J. Real-time human tracker based on location and motion recognition of user for smart home. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering, Qingdao, China, 4–6 June 2009; pp. 243–250.
- Liu, C.L.; Lee, C.H.; Lin, P.M. A fall detection system using k-nearest neighbor classifier. Expert Syst. Appl. 2010, 37, 7174–7181. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chi, S.; Caldas, C.H. Automated object identification using optical video cameras on construction sites. Comput. Aided Civ. Infrastruct. Eng. 2011, 26, 368–380. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ekenel, H.K.; Stallkamp, J.; Stiefelhagen, R. A video-based door monitoring system using local appearance-based face models. Comput. Vis. Image Underst. 2010, 114, 596–560. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Yang, N.; Zhao, X.; Zhang, H. A non-contact health monitoring model based on the internet of things. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Natural Computation (ICNC), Sichuan, China, 29–31 May 2012; pp. 506–510.
- Thompson, C.; White, J.; Dougherty, B.; Albright, A.; Schmidt, D.C. Using smartphones to detect car accidents and provide situational awareness to emergency responders. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Mobile Wireless Middleware, Operating Systems, and Applications, Chicago, IL, USA, 30 June–2 July 2010; pp. 29–42.
- Perera, K.; Dias, D. An intelligent driver guidance tool using location based services. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Spatial Data Mining and Geographical Knowledge Services (ICSDM), Fuzhou, China, 29 June–1 July 2011; pp. 246–251.
- Lee, H.; Kim, H.J.; Roh, B.H.; Yoo, S.W.; Oh, Y. Tree-based classification algorithm for heterogeneous unique item ID schemes. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing, Nagasaki, Japan, 6–9 December 2005; pp. 1078–1087.
- Li, X.; Liu, J.; Sheng, Q.Z.; Zeadally, S.; Zhong, W. TMS-RFID: Temporal management of large-scale RFID applications. Inform. Syst. Front. 2011, 13, 481–500. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Papamatthaiakis, G.; Polyzos, G.C.; Xylomenos, G. Monitoring and modeling simple everyday activities of the elderly at home. In Proceedings of the 7th IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference, Las Vegas, NV, USA, 9–12 January 2010; pp. 1–5.
- Kang, K.J.; Ka, B.; Kim, S.J. A service scenario generation scheme based on association rule mining for elderly surveillance system in a smart home environment. Eng. Appl. Artif. Intell. 2012, 25, 1355–1364. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Suryadevara, N.; Gaddam, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Rayudu, R. Wellness determination of inhabitant based on daily activity behaviour in real-time monitoring using sensor networks. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on in Sensing Technology (ICST), Palmerston North, New Zealand, 28 November–1 December 2011; pp. 474–481.
- Cook, D.J.; Youngblood, G.M.; Heierman, E.O.; Gopalratnam, K.; Rao, S.; Litvin, A.; Khavaja, F. Mavhome: An agent-based smart home. In Proceedings of the 1st IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications, Fort Worth, TX, USA, 23–26 March 2003; pp. 521–524.
- BBVA News. Available online: https://info.bbva.com/es/noticias/ciencia/tecnologia/bbva-analiza-el-turismo-en-espana-a-partir-de-las-transacciones-con-tarjeta/ (accessed on 14 June 2016).
- Big Data in Healthcare Hype and Hope. Available online: https://www.ghdonline.org/uploads/big-data-in-healthcare_B_Kaplan_2012.pdf (accessed on 4 September 2016).
- Global Information Technology Report 2015-Reports-World Economic Forum. Available online: http://reports.weforum.org/global-information-technology-report-2015/ (accessed on 6 June 2016).
- EU Projects|EIP-Smart Cities and Communities Market Place. Available online: https://eu-smartcities.eu/eu-projects?Search_term= (accessed on 2 June 2016).
- Report to the President Technology and the Future of Cities. Available online: https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/whitehouse.gov/files/images/Blog/PCAST%20Cities%20Report%20_%20FINAL.pdf (accessed on 6 June 2016).
- Batty, M.; Axhausen, K.W.; Giannotti, F.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Bazzani, A.; Wachowicz, M.; Ouzounis, G.; Portugali, Y. Smart cities of the future. Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 2012, 214, 481–518. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Anttiroiko, A.-V. U-cities reshaping our future: Reflections on ubiquitous infrastructure as an enabler of smart urban development. AI Soc. 2013, 28, 491–507. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wirtz, H.; Rüth, J.; Serror, M.; Zimmermann, T.; Wehrle, K. Enabling ubiquitous interaction with smart things. In Proceedings of the 12th Annual IEEE International Conference on Sensing, Communication and Networking (SECON), Seattle, WA, USA, 22–25 June 2015; pp. 256–264.
- Simplifying IoT: Connecting, Commissioning, and Controlling with Near Field Communication (NFC). Available online: http://nfc-forum.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/NFC_Forum_IoT_White_Paper_-v05.pdf (accessed on 6 June 2016).
- Clarifying the Internet of Things by Defining the Internet of Devices. Available online: http://peterswire.net/wp-content/uploads/Clarifying-the-Internet-of-Things-by-Defining-the-Internet-of-Devices.pdf (accessed on 6 June 2016).
- Creating a National Infrastructure to Power Innovation, Reduce Energy Consumption and Re-invigorate Cities—Sensity Systems. Available online: http://www.sensity.com/white-papers-1/creating-a-national-infrastructure-to-power-innovation-reduce-energy-consumption-and-re-invigorate-cities (accessed on 6 June 2016).
- Ayyash, M.; Elgala, H.; Khreishah, A.; Jungnickel, V.; Little, T.; Shao, S.; Rahaim, M.; Schulz, D.; Hilt, J.; Freund, R. Coexistence of WiFi and LiFi toward 5G: Concepts, opportunities, and challenges. IEEE Commun. Mag. 2016, 54, 64–71. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wu, S.; Wang, H.; Youn, C.H. Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: From fixed to mobile communications. IEEE Netw. 2014, 28, 41–45. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Smart Cities: The Faster Track to Success. Available online: https://www.Juniperresearch.Com/document-library/white-papers/smart-cities-on-the-faster-track-to-success (accessed on 6 June 2016).
- Diagnosing Digital Health. Available online: https://www.juniperresearch.com/document-library/white-papers/diagnosing-digital-health (accessed on 6 June 2016).
- Coupons: Personalization Goes Hyper. Available online: https://www.juniperresearch.com/document-library/white-papers/coupons-~-personalisation-goes-hyper (accessed on 10 June 2016).
- Mirowski, P.; Ho, T.K.; Yi, S.; MacDonald, M. Signalslam: Simultaneous localization and mapping with mixed wifi, bluetooth, LTE and magnetic signals. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation, Belfort, France, 28–31 October 2013; pp. 1–10.
- NFC: No Contact Required. Available online: https://www.juniperresearch.com/document-library/white-papers/nfc-no-contact-required (accessed on 6 June 2016).
- Corbellini, G.; Aks, K.; Schmid, S.; Mangold, S.; Gross, T.R. Connecting networks of toys and smartphones with visible light communication. IEEE Commun. Mag. 2014, 57, 72–78. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- VLC in Toys Next Christmas?|Visible Light Communications. Available online: http://visiblelightcomm.Com/vlc-in-toys-next-christmas/ (accessed on 6 June 2016).
- NFC figure|Pokémon Rumble U official site. Available online: http://www.pokemonrumble.com/rumbleu/en/nfc/ (accessed on 6 June 2016).
- Helsinki Region Infoshare. Available online: http://www.Hri.fi/en/about/ (accessed on 12 September 2016).
- Transformational “Smart cities”: Cyber Security and Resilience. Available online: https://eu-smartcities.eu/sites/all/files/blog/files/Transformational%20Smart%20Cities%20-%20Symantec%20Executive%20Report.pdf (accessed on 12 September 2016).
- OUTSMART: European Future Internet Portal-the information hub for European R&D activities on the Internet of the future. Available online: http://www.future-internet.eu/home/future-internet-ppp/outsmart.html (accessed on 12 September 2016).
- Khosroshahi, A.H. Energy management in buildings using visible light communication. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Technical and Physical Problems of Power Engineering (ICTPE 2012), Fredrikstad, Norway, 5–7 September 2012; pp. 527–531.
- Jeong, J.D.; Lim, S.K.; Han, J.; Park, K.W.; Lee, I.W.; Chong, J.W. Visible light communication method for personalized and localized building energy management. ETRI J. 2016, 38, 735–745. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
|Characteristics||NFC Tag Types|
|NTAG203||NTAG210/2||NTAG213/5/6||Mifare 1k/4k||Ultralight/C||Topaz||Desfire EV1||ICODE Series||NTAG I2C|
|Tag Type||Type 2||Type 2||Type 2||Classic||Type 2||Type 1||Type 4||Type 5||Type 2|
|Memory||168 bytes||80/164 bytes||180/540/924 bytes||1/4 Kb||64/192 bytes||120 bytes||2/4/8 KBytes||256/896/1280 bits||888/1094 bits|
|Available Memory||137 bytes||48/128 bytes||137/496/879 bytes||716 bytes||46/137 bytes||96 bytes||2304/4864/7936 bytes||256/896/1280 bits||896 bytes|
|UID ASCII mirroring||No||Yes||Yes||No||No||No||No||No||No|
|Transmission speed||High||High||Very high||Slow||Medium||Medium||Medium||High||High|
|Devices types||Beacon||Beacon and Stickers||Beacon||Beacon B1||Beacon and USB Dongle||Particle||Beacon X/O||Beacon mini, Beacon maxi, USB||Beacon||Gimbal Beacon||Beacon|
|Protocol||S-Beacon||iBeacon and Eddystone||iBeacon and Eddystone||iBeacon||iBeacon , AltBeacon, Eddystone||iBeacon and Eddystone||iBeacon||iBeacon and Eddystone||iBeacon||Gimbal||GeLo|
|Operating life||1–3 years||7 years||Unknown||1 year||Unknown||6 months||5 years||Unknown||1 year||Unknown||2 years|
|Radio range||50 m||70 m||Unknown||50 m||Unknown||50 m||60 m||Unknown||2 m, 20 m, 50 m||50 m||10 m|
|Certifications||FCC, CE, AS4268||Pending||Unknown||Non reported||Unknown||FCC, IC||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown||Non reported||Non reported|
|Cloud management platform||Yes||No||Yes||No||Unknown||No||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown||Yes||Yes|
|Firmware update secured||Yes||Yes||Yes||No||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown||Yes||Unknown|
|Support encrypted password security||Yes||Yes||Yes||No||Unknown||No||Yes||Yes||Unknown||Yes||Unknown|
|Configurable radio output power||Yes||Yes||Unknown||Yes||Unknown||No||Unknown||Yes||Unknown||No||Unknown|
|Configurable measured power (RSSI)||Yes||Yes||Unknown||Yes||Unknown||No||Unknown||Yes||Unknown||Yes||Unknown|
|Default Beacon broadcast rate||1000 ms||200 ms||Unknown||250 ms||Unknown||Unknown||100 ms||100 ms||100/1285ms||Unknown||Unknown|
|Configurable advertising interval||Yes||Yes||Unknown||Yes||Unknown||No||Unknown||Yes||Yes||Unknown||No|
|Configurable MajorID, MinorID||Yes||Yes||Unknown||Yes||Unknown||Yes||Unknown||Yes||Yes||Unknown||No|
|URL (information, frameworks and libraries)||https://www.sticknfind.com/Beacons&iBeacons/||http://estimote.com/||https://kontakt.io||http://redbearlab.com/iBeacon/||http://www.radiusnetworks.com/||https://kstechnologies.com/particle/||http://roximity.com/platform/||http://www.blueupBeacons.com/||http://glimwormBeacons.com||http://www.gimbal.com/||http://www.getgelo.com/Beacons/|
|Standard||ISO/IEC 14443 A&B, JIS X-6319-4||Bluetooth Core Specification 4.0/4.1/4.2||IEEE 802.15.7, JEITA CP-1223|
|Band width||13.56 MHz||2.4 GHz||400 nm (750 THz)–700 nm (428 THz)|
|Frequency regulation||Regulated. Limited band with||Regulated. Limited bandwidth||Unregulated|
|Transmission rate||424 Kbits/s||300 Kbits/s||Mbs-Gbs|
|Transmision distance||<10 cm||<70 m||<120 m|
|Transmision security||High||Low||What you see is what you send|
|Technology maturity||Mature||Mature||Little mature|
|Infrastructure||Access point||Access point||Lighting|
|Vision line||Yes (Contact)||No||Yes/No|
|Communication||One to one||One to many||One to many|
|Energy consumption||Very low||Medium||Low|
|Energy efficiency||None (Tags). Low others||Battery (average 2 years)||LEDs (low)|
|Coverage||4–10 cm||50–70 m||20–50 m|
|Dangerousness||None||Yes (RF emision)||Eyes /Frame of mind|
|Environment conditions||No effect||Reduction of the range||Interferences|
|Noise sensitive||No||Other users||Environment conditions|
|Operating system||Android, Windows, Blackberry||iOS, Android, Windows, Blackberry||In development|
|Localization||Consumer control||Consumer respond||Both|
© 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).