Next Article in Journal
GNSS Spoofing Network Monitoring Based on Differential Pseudorange
Previous Article in Journal
An Improved Map-Matching Technique Based on the Fréchet Distance Approach for Pedestrian Navigation Services
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Survey on Intermediation Architectures for Underwater Robotics
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Underwater Communications for Video Surveillance Systems at 2.4 GHz

Signal Theory, Telematics and Communications Department (TSTC), Universidad de Granada, C/Periodista Daniel Saucedo Aranda, s/n., Granada 18071, Spain
Integrated Management Coastal Research Institute, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, C/Paranimf, n° 1, Grao de Gandia 46730, Spain
National Institute of Telecommunications (Inatel), Santa Rita do Sapucaí 37540-000, Brazil
Instituto de Telecomunicações, Universidade da Beira Interior, Rua Marquês d'Ávila e Bolama, Covilhã 6201-001, Portugal
ITMO University, 49 Kronverksky Pr., St. Petersburg 197101, Russia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Xue Wang
Sensors 2016, 16(10), 1769;
Received: 30 July 2016 / Revised: 11 October 2016 / Accepted: 19 October 2016 / Published: 23 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks)
PDF [4984 KB, uploaded 23 October 2016]


Video surveillance is needed to control many activities performed in underwater environments. The use of wired media can be a problem since the material specially designed for underwater environments is very expensive. In order to transmit the images and videos wirelessly under water, three main technologies can be used: acoustic waves, which do not provide high bandwidth, optical signals, although the effect of light dispersion in water severely penalizes the transmitted signals and therefore, despite offering high transfer rates, the maximum distance is very small, and electromagnetic (EM) waves, which can provide enough bandwidth for video delivery. In the cases where the distance between transmitter and receiver is short, the use of EM waves would be an interesting option since they provide high enough data transfer rates to transmit videos with high resolution. This paper presents a practical study of the behavior of EM waves at 2.4 GHz in freshwater underwater environments. First, we discuss the minimum requirements of a network to allow video delivery. From these results, we measure the maximum distance between nodes and the round trip time (RTT) value depending on several parameters such as data transfer rate, signal modulations, working frequency, and water temperature. The results are statistically analyzed to determine their relation. Finally, the EM waves’ behavior is modeled by a set of equations. The results show that there are some combinations of working frequency, modulation, transfer rate and temperature that offer better results than others. Our work shows that short communication distances with high data transfer rates is feasible. View Full-Text
Keywords: video transmission; underwater video surveillance; underwater communications; underwater wireless sensor network (UWSN); 2.4 GHz; freshwater; electromagnetic waves; modulations video transmission; underwater video surveillance; underwater communications; underwater wireless sensor network (UWSN); 2.4 GHz; freshwater; electromagnetic waves; modulations

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sendra, S.; Lloret, J.; Jimenez, J.M.; Rodrigues, J.J. Underwater Communications for Video Surveillance Systems at 2.4 GHz. Sensors 2016, 16, 1769.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top