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Active Low Intrusion Hybrid Monitor for Wireless Sensor Networks

Computer Science School, Escuela Superior Politécnica Agropecuaria de Manabí (ESPAM MFL), 10 de Agosto and Granda Centeno Street, No. 82, 130607 Calceta, Ecuador
IUI ITACA, Sensor Networks Lab, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera, s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Leonhard Reindl
Sensors 2015, 15(9), 23927-23952;
Received: 7 July 2015 / Revised: 28 August 2015 / Accepted: 10 September 2015 / Published: 18 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
PDF [1570 KB, uploaded 18 September 2015]


Several systems have been proposed to monitor wireless sensor networks (WSN). These systems may be active (causing a high degree of intrusion) or passive (low observability inside the nodes). This paper presents the implementation of an active hybrid (hardware and software) monitor with low intrusion. It is based on the addition to the sensor node of a monitor node (hardware part) which, through a standard interface, is able to receive the monitoring information sent by a piece of software executed in the sensor node. The intrusion on time, code, and energy caused in the sensor nodes by the monitor is evaluated as a function of data size and the interface used. Then different interfaces, commonly available in sensor nodes, are evaluated: serial transmission (USART), serial peripheral interface (SPI), and parallel. The proposed hybrid monitor provides highly detailed information, barely disturbed by the measurement tool (interference), about the behavior of the WSN that may be used to evaluate many properties such as performance, dependability, security, etc. Monitor nodes are self-powered and may be removed after the monitoring campaign to be reused in other campaigns and/or WSNs. No other hardware-independent monitoring platforms with such low interference have been found in the literature. View Full-Text
Keywords: monitoring; hybrid monitor; intrusion; wireless sensor networks monitoring; hybrid monitor; intrusion; wireless sensor networks

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Navia, M.; Campelo, J.C.; Bonastre, A.; Ors, R.; Capella, J.V.; Serrano, J.J. Active Low Intrusion Hybrid Monitor for Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2015, 15, 23927-23952.

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