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Enhanced Viability of Endothelial Colony Forming Cells in Fibrin Microbeads for Sensor Vascularization

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wishnick Hall 223, 3255 South Dearborn Street, Chicago, IL 60616, USA
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, Belgrade 11000, Serbia
Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46201, USA
Research Service, Hines Veterans Administration Hospital, Hines, IL 60141, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jennie B. Leach
Sensors 2015, 15(9), 23886-23902;
Received: 11 August 2015 / Revised: 3 September 2015 / Accepted: 15 September 2015 / Published: 18 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Biomaterials and Sensors for Tissue Engineering)
PDF [800 KB, uploaded 18 September 2015]


Enhanced vascularization at sensor interfaces can improve long-term function. Fibrin, a natural polymer, has shown promise as a biomaterial for sensor coating due to its ability to sustain endothelial cell growth and promote local vascularization. However, the culture of cells, particularly endothelial cells (EC), within 3D scaffolds for more than a few days is challenging due to rapid loss of EC viability. In this manuscript, a robust method for developing fibrin microbead scaffolds for long-term culture of encapsulated ECs is described. Fibrin microbeads are formed using sodium alginate as a structural template. The size, swelling and structural properties of the microbeads were varied with needle gauge and composition and concentration of the pre-gel solution. Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) were suspended in the fibrin beads and cultured within a perfusion bioreactor system. The perfusion bioreactor enhanced ECFCs viability and genome stability in fibrin beads relative to static culture. Perfusion bioreactors enable 3D culture of ECs within fibrin beads for potential application as a sensor coating. View Full-Text
Keywords: tissue engineering; vascularization; bioreactor; long-term sensors; implantable sensors; fibrin tissue engineering; vascularization; bioreactor; long-term sensors; implantable sensors; fibrin

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Gandhi, J.K.; Zivkovic, L.; Fisher, J.P.; Yoder, M.C.; Brey, E.M. Enhanced Viability of Endothelial Colony Forming Cells in Fibrin Microbeads for Sensor Vascularization. Sensors 2015, 15, 23886-23902.

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