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Performance Evaluation of Smartphone Inertial Sensors Measurement for Range of Motion

University of Grenoble-Alpes, AGIM, La Tronche 38700, France
University of Lille, F-59000 Lille and Mines Douai, URIA, Douai F-59508, France
Institut Universitaire de France, Paris 75000, France
LAI Jean-Raoul Scherrer, University of Geneva, 1206 Geneva Switzerland/University of Grenoble Alpes, Saint-Martin-d'Hères 38041, France
Laboratory for Ergonomics and Work-related Disorders, Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction (SMI), Department of Health Science and Technology, University of Aalborg, Aalborg 9220, Denmark
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M. N. Passaro
Sensors 2015, 15(9), 23168-23187;
Received: 16 July 2015 / Revised: 6 September 2015 / Accepted: 7 September 2015 / Published: 15 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
PDF [459 KB, uploaded 15 September 2015]


Over the years, smartphones have become tools for scientific and clinical research. They can, for instance, be used to assess range of motion and joint angle measurement. In this paper, our aim was to determine if smartphones are reliable and accurate enough for clinical motion research. This work proposes an evaluation of different smartphone sensors performance and different manufacturer algorithm performances with the comparison to the gold standard, an industrial robotic arm with an actual standard use inertial motion unit in clinical measurement, an Xsens product. Both dynamic and static protocols were used to perform these comparisons. Root Mean Square (RMS) mean values results for static protocol are under 0.3° for the different smartphones. RMS mean values results for dynamic protocol are more prone to bias induced by Euler angle representation. Statistical results prove that there are no filter effect on results for both protocols and no hardware effect. Smartphones performance can be compared to the Xsens gold standard for clinical research. View Full-Text
Keywords: smartphone sensing; IMU; Kalman filter; validation smartphone sensing; IMU; Kalman filter; validation

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mourcou, Q.; Fleury, A.; Franco, C.; Klopcic, F.; Vuillerme, N. Performance Evaluation of Smartphone Inertial Sensors Measurement for Range of Motion. Sensors 2015, 15, 23168-23187.

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