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Sensors 2015, 15(8), 19181-19198;

Investigating Driver Fatigue versus Alertness Using the Granger Causality Network

College of Computer Science, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018, China
College of Biomedical Engineering & Instrument Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Rome "Sapienza", Rome 00185, Italy
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Rome "Sapienza", Rome 00185, Italy
IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, via Ardeatina, 306, Rome 00142, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Felipe Jimenez and Feng Xia
Received: 31 December 2014 / Revised: 29 May 2015 / Accepted: 29 July 2015 / Published: 5 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in New Road Vehicles)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1992 KB, uploaded 5 August 2015]   |  


Driving fatigue has been identified as one of the main factors affecting drivers’ safety. The aim of this study was to analyze drivers’ different mental states, such as alertness and drowsiness, and find out a neurometric indicator able to detect drivers’ fatigue level in terms of brain networks. Twelve young, healthy subjects were recruited to take part in a driver fatigue experiment under different simulated driving conditions. The Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals of the subjects were recorded during the whole experiment and analyzed by using Granger-Causality-based brain effective networks. It was that the topology of the brain networks and the brain’s ability to integrate information changed when subjects shifted from the alert to the drowsy stage. In particular, there was a significant difference in terms of strength of Granger causality (GC) in the frequency domain and the properties of the brain effective network i.e., causal flow, global efficiency and characteristic path length between such conditions. Also, some changes were more significant over the frontal brain lobes for the alpha frequency band. These findings might be used to detect drivers’ fatigue levels, and as reference work for future studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: driving fatigue; eeg; granger causality; frequency domain; brain effective network driving fatigue; eeg; granger causality; frequency domain; brain effective network

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Kong, W.; Lin, W.; Babiloni, F.; Hu, S.; Borghini, G. Investigating Driver Fatigue versus Alertness Using the Granger Causality Network. Sensors 2015, 15, 19181-19198.

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