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Open AccessArticle

Joint Temperature-Lasing Mode Compensation for Time-of-Flight LiDAR Sensors

Control Engineering Group, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå 97187, Sweden
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Lianqing Liu, Ning Xi, Wen Jung Li, Xin Zhao and Yajing Shen
Sensors 2015, 15(12), 31205-31223; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151229854
Received: 6 November 2015 / Revised: 2 December 2015 / Accepted: 7 December 2015 / Published: 11 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Robots)
We propose an expectation maximization (EM) strategy for improving the precision of time of flight (ToF) light detection and ranging (LiDAR) scanners. The novel algorithm statistically accounts not only for the bias induced by temperature changes in the laser diode, but also for the multi-modality of the measurement noises that is induced by mode-hopping effects. Instrumental to the proposed EM algorithm, we also describe a general thermal dynamics model that can be learned either from just input-output data or from a combination of simple temperature experiments and information from the laser’s datasheet. We test the strategy on a SICK LMS 200 device and improve its average absolute error by a factor of three. View Full-Text
Keywords: LiDAR; EM; Gaussian mixture model (GMM); mode hopping; ToF; maximum likelihood (ML); multi-modality; SICK LMS200 LiDAR; EM; Gaussian mixture model (GMM); mode hopping; ToF; maximum likelihood (ML); multi-modality; SICK LMS200
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Alhashimi, A.; Varagnolo, D.; Gustafsson, T. Joint Temperature-Lasing Mode Compensation for Time-of-Flight LiDAR Sensors. Sensors 2015, 15, 31205-31223.

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