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Sensors 2014, 14(8), 14601-14633;

A Review of Brain-Computer Interface Games and an Opinion Survey from Researchers, Developers and Users

School of Information and Communications, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500712, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 February 2014 / Revised: 25 July 2014 / Accepted: 28 July 2014 / Published: 11 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1560 KB, uploaded 12 August 2014]


In recent years, research on Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technology for healthy users has attracted considerable interest, and BCI games are especially popular. This study reviews the current status of, and describes future directions, in the field of BCI games. To this end, we conducted a literature search and found that BCI control paradigms using electroencephalographic signals (motor imagery, P300, steady state visual evoked potential and passive approach reading mental state) have been the primary focus of research. We also conducted a survey of nearly three hundred participants that included researchers, game developers and users around the world. From this survey, we found that all three groups (researchers, developers and users) agreed on the significant influence and applicability of BCI and BCI games, and they all selected prostheses, rehabilitation and games as the most promising BCI applications. User and developer groups tended to give low priority to passive BCI and the whole head sensor array. Developers gave higher priorities to “the easiness of playing” and the “development platform” as important elements for BCI games and the market. Based on our assessment, we discuss the critical point at which BCI games will be able to progress from their current stage to widespread marketing to consumers. In conclusion, we propose three critical elements important for expansion of the BCI game market: standards, gameplay and appropriate integration. View Full-Text
Keywords: brain-computer interface (BCI); game; entertainment; opinion survey; market brain-computer interface (BCI); game; entertainment; opinion survey; market
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Ahn, M.; Lee, M.; Choi, J.; Jun, S.C. A Review of Brain-Computer Interface Games and an Opinion Survey from Researchers, Developers and Users. Sensors 2014, 14, 14601-14633.

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