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Sensors 2014, 14(12), 23724-23741;

Piezoelectric Bimorphs’ Characteristics as In-Socket Sensors for Transfemoral Amputees

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
Mechatronics Section, Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University, Assiut 71516, Egypt
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 August 2014 / Revised: 23 October 2014 / Accepted: 5 November 2014 / Published: 10 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Collection Sensors for Globalized Healthy Living and Wellbeing)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1243 KB, uploaded 12 December 2014]


Alternative sensory systems for the development of prosthetic knees are being increasingly highlighted nowadays, due to the rapid advancements in the field of lower limb prosthetics. This study presents the use of piezoelectric bimorphs as in-socket sensors for transfemoral amputees. An Instron machine was used in the calibration procedure and the corresponding output data were further analyzed to determine the static and dynamic characteristics of the piezoelectric bimorph. The piezoelectric bimorph showed appropriate static operating range, repeatability, hysteresis, and frequency response for application in lower prosthesis, with a force range of 0–100 N. To further validate this finding, an experiment was conducted with a single transfemoral amputee subject to measure the stump/socket pressure using the piezoelectric bimorph embedded inside the socket. The results showed that a maximum interface pressure of about 27 kPa occurred at the anterior proximal site compared to the anterior distal and posterior sites, consistent with values published in other studies. This paper highlighted the capacity of piezoelectric bimorphs to perform as in-socket sensors for transfemoral amputees. However, further experiments are recommended to be conducted with different amputees with different socket types. View Full-Text
Keywords: in-socket sensor; piezoelectric bimorph; stump/socket pressure in-socket sensor; piezoelectric bimorph; stump/socket pressure
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

El-Sayed, A.M.; Hamzaid, N.A.; Abu Osman, N.A. Piezoelectric Bimorphs’ Characteristics as In-Socket Sensors for Transfemoral Amputees. Sensors 2014, 14, 23724-23741.

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