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Sensors 2014, 14(12), 23673-23696;

Mobile Phone Middleware Architecture for Energy and Context Awareness in Location-Based Services

Information Technology Laboratory, CINVESTAV-Tamaulipas, C.P. 87130 Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 September 2014 / Revised: 18 November 2014 / Accepted: 24 November 2014 / Published: 10 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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The disruptive innovation of smartphone technology has enabled the development of mobile sensing applications leveraged on specialized sensors embedded in the device. These novel mobile phone applications rely on advanced sensor information processes, which mainly involve raw data acquisition, feature extraction, data interpretation and transmission. However, the continuous accessing of sensing resources to acquire sensor data in smartphones is still very expensive in terms of energy, particularly due to the periodic use of power-intensive sensors, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. The key underlying idea to design energy-efficient schemes is to control the duty cycle of the GPS receiver. However, adapting the sensing rate based on dynamic context changes through a flexible middleware has received little attention in the literature. In this paper, we propose a novel modular middleware architecture and runtime environment to directly interface with application programming interfaces (APIs) and embedded sensors in order to manage the duty cycle process based on energy and context aspects. The proposed solution has been implemented in the Android software stack. It allows continuous location tracking in a timely manner and in a transparent way to the user. It also enables the deployment of sensing policies to appropriately control the sampling rate based on both energy and perceived context. We validate the proposed solution taking into account a reference location-based service (LBS) architecture. A cloud-based storage service along with online mobility analysis tools have been used to store and access sensed data. Experimental measurements demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of our middleware, in terms of energy and location resolution. View Full-Text
Keywords: context-awareness; energy-awareness; location-based services; middleware; mobile sensing applications context-awareness; energy-awareness; location-based services; middleware; mobile sensing applications

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Galeana-Zapién, H.; Torres-Huitzil, C.; Rubio-Loyola, J. Mobile Phone Middleware Architecture for Energy and Context Awareness in Location-Based Services. Sensors 2014, 14, 23673-23696.

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